Part 9 - Exercise 8 Answers
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For this use of the instrumental see Warder p.45. ahaṃ tena samayena is a common expression.
ahosiṃ, first person singular aorist of hoti, see Warder p.26.
Note that proper names also take case endings, like any other nouns.
Or 'by giving'. This was one of the (wrong) views of Pūraṇa Kassapa, one of the six non-Buddhist religious leaders famous at the time of the Buddha.
Again, note the historical present tense, here vadāmi. Whether a present tense verb in a given instance is expressing the present or the past - or even the future, see Warder pp.12-13 - must be decided by the context.
Note that ahaṃ is here the agent of both verbs (see Warder p.48). From the sutta context it is also clear the te is the patient of both verbs: 'having approached them, I said to them ...'
Again note that the agent of the gerund and the main verb is the same. abhivādeti means formally paying respect to someone, it is more than doing añjali. pakkāmi is third person singular aorist.
disvā here refers back to something previously seen, mentioned just before.
(said) Aorist, see Warder p.32.
evaṃ. The general meaning of evaṃ is 'thus', but here it refers to something just about to be said and therefore is best translated as 'this'.
bho satta, vocative.
The context is the decline of all morality until there is a 'sword period' when most people are killed. The few 'beings' remaining, not even called 'people', will then meet each other and give the above greeting.
jayaṃ is the nominative (not accusative) singular of the present participle of jayati, see Warder p.46. It functions as an adjective qualifying 'he' ('he' is not explicitly stated but implied by the verb), which it agrees with grammatically. The context is gambling.
Or 'he who is winning generates hatred', since the present participle functions grammatically as an adjective.
|rājan||raññā (j+n assimilated to ññ )|
Pali Noun Declension Table (opens in new tab)
evaṃ. See Warder's vocabulary at the end of the book.
This is the usual way to express consent. The quotation marks are the equivalent of the ti in the Pali.
gacchāma. The English idiom requires 'we are going' rather than 'we go'. gacchāma could also be regarded as imperative, 'we must go', see Warder pp.34-35.
i.e. 'when he was dying he said ...'. karonto is the present participle (nominative singular) of karoti, agreeing with 'he', the implied agent of avoca. One could translate: 'he who was dying said: ...'. kālaṃ karoti, lit. 'does time', is an idiomatic expression for dying. The context is Sigāla's father's last words in the opening passages of the Sigālovāda-sutta.
samāno, 'being', is the present participle nominative singular of atthi, agreeing with rājā. Note that the verbs meaning 'to be' (hoti, atthi, bhavati) do not take patients, rather they 'link' words of the same case. Thus we could translate 'he who is being a king obtains this', with both 'he' and 'king' in the nominative, connected by samāno (which is a form of 'to be').
(obtains this) Referring to a list of royal benefits just mentioned.
jhāna is a deep state of meditation not really translatable.
gacchāma can here be understood as taking two objects, saraṇaṃ and bhagavantaṃ, see Warder p.18. This was said by the first disciples of the Buddha Vipassī, so there was no sangha yet to take refuge in.
In context, it means 'I grant (them) (their) life'.
1 ahaṃ with elision of initial a after another vowel.
2 Assimilation ṃ + c > ñc in junction.
Te is optional.
The PTS text actually has the junction form tyāhaṃ for te ahaṃ, see Warder p.215.
Note that ādāya, lit. 'having taken', is rendered by Warder as 'taking'.
ahaṃ is optional.
The text actually has bho Mahā Govindo ... pabbaji. Both bho and bhavaṃ can be used for the nominative singular
Ahaṃ is optional.
Note how both ṭhāna and padesa are in the nominative (ṭhānaṃ /padeso) when used with yena (see Warder p.14), but in the accusative (ṭhānaṃ /padesaṃ) when not.