Part 19 - Exercise 13 Answers
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(down) Nipātesṃ, aorist causative (see Warder p.81).
(stretched out) i.e., they laid it down flat.
The following sentence ends in ti which here marks direct speech, thus 'saying'.
(speak) Vadehi, imperative, see Warder p.35.
See Alphabet table from Lesson 1 (opens in new tab)
(certainly) Eva, adds emphasis.
Passena, indeclinable or instrumental of manner, see Warder p.45.
Ṭhapesuṃ, see Warder p.81.
(conch-blower) Saṅkhadhama = saṅkha ('conch') + dhama ('blower'), a genitive tappurisa compound. That is, the case relationship between the two members of the compound, saṅkha and dhamo, is the genitive, 'blower of the conch'. The compound as a whole is also genitive, thus the ending '-ssa'. See Warder pp.77-78.
Or 'it occurred to him', lit. 'of that conch-blower there was this'. The standard Pali idiom used to express thinking, see Warder p.56.
Two adjectives and a pronoun preceding the noun that they qualify, i.e. manussā, 'people'. This is an emphatic construction; usually only one adjective precedes the noun (see Warder p.61). Note again the lack of a verb, the verb 'to be' must be added.
(how can) Kathaṃ hi nāma. Goes with the future tense, the meaning being indignation/disapproval, see Warder p.55. The future tense is not suitable for the English translation. (The point of course is to retain the meaning of the Pali, i.e. indignation/disapproval, not the literal tense of the verb.)
(unwisely) Ayoniso, none of Warder's translations fit the context very well.
(conch-sound) Saṅkhasaddaṃ = saṅkha ('conch') + sadda ('sound'), a genitive tappurisa compound, 'sound of the conch', see Warder pp.77-78.
(were watching) Genitive absolute, see Warder p.58. When the genitive absolute is formed with the present participle (here pekkhamānānaṃ) the action is usually simultaneous with the action of the main verb of the sentence (here pakkāmi, aorist). Thus I translate 'were watching' to agree with 'went away', both past tense.
Note that the following four verbs (grasped, sounded, taken, went away) all have the same agent. That the agent is 'he' (i.e. the conch-blower) is known from the context and from the final verb pakkāmi (third person singular aorist).
(having taken) Or 'taking', see Warder p.48.
1 Aorist of saṃ-dhū (V: Lesson 15), "to shake."
2 Genitive absolute, cf. Lesson 10.
Vācesi, aorist, lit. 'caused to speak/recite'. Since recitation was the brahmin way of learning their tradition,
this becomes 'to teach'.
(hymns) Mante, accusative plural.
(develops) Bhāveti, causative of bhavati, 'to be'. 'To cause to be' is to bring into existence, i.e. to develop.
(thought) Cittaṃ usually means 'mind', but in context it is a 'thought' or 'wish' that he is cultivating.
(giving) Again note how the Pali present tense demi can be translated as either 'I give' or 'I am giving'.
(you) Taṃ. Accusative of tvaṃ.
(enemies) Dative. Verbs meaning to give (and similar concepts) are usually associated with the dative, i.e. dative of advantage (for the receiver).
Dukkhasamudayo = dukkha ('suffering') + samudayo ('origin'), a genitive tappurisa compound (see Warder p.77-78) equivalent to dukkhassa samudayo.
(mansions to be made) Or 'had mansions made', causative, see Warder p.80. Kārāpesi is either second person singular present tense or third person singular aorist (the forms are identical), but since rājā is the agent (i.e., third person) only the second alternative is possible.
Again, dative of advantage.
(collection of virtue) Sīlakkhandhena = sīla ('virtue') + (k) khandha ('collection'), genitive tappurisa compound. Again note that genitive here refers to the internal structure of the compound. The compound as a whole (and thus its relationship to other words in the sentence) is instrumental.
(restraint of the senses) Indriyasaṃvarena = indriya ('sense(s)') + saṃvara ('restraint'), another genitive tappurisa compound.
(resorts) Note how 'he' (so) is the agent of three separate clauses, each with a separate verb (i.e., samannāgato twice and bhajati).
(root of a tree) i.e., the foot of a tree. Rukkhamūlaṃ = rukkha ('tree') + mūla ('root'), another genitive tappurisa compound.
(the open air) Warder takes abbhokāsaṃ to be an adjective qualifying palālapuñjaṃ, but normally it is understood to be a noun.
(heap of straw) Palālapuñjaṃ = palāla ('straw') + puñja ('heap'), still another genitive tappurisa compound, see Warder pp.77-78.
(wheel of Dhamma) Dhammacakkaṃ = dhammassa cakkaṃ, again a genitive tappurisa compound.
(set going) Pavattitaṃ is a past participle of the causative, i.e. 'caused to go'. This is an example of the past participle in the nominative singular neuter (pavattitaṃ) being used as the main sentence verb, see Warder p.42. The past participle still agrees with its object (anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ), this being a passive sentence.
(Whoever) Ye, lit. 'who', plural.
(puts) Lit. 'will put'. Āropessanti is probably future due to 'attraction' to bhavissati (see Warder pp.87-88). That is, bhavissati (the verb of the main clause) is required to be future tense on account of the meaning, and thus the verb of the relative clause (āropessanti) will also tend to be future.
(a garland on top of (it)) Note the relative clause/demonstrative clause construction. The context is the honouring of a stupa containing Buddha-relics.
(for their) Tesaṃ, either dative, 'for/to them', or genitive, 'their'/'of them'. It is often impossible to know for certain whether a particular construction is dative or genitive (here it is probably dative due to the advantage obtained), see Warder p.69. In practice, whether a particular expression is dative or genitive, does not usually significantly affect the meaning.
(happiness) Sukhāya, dative, lit. 'for the purpose of happiness'.
(why) Kiṃ here functions as an indeclinable, which purpose it is to make the sentence interrogative, see Warder p.74.
Again, a sentence without a verb. Add 'to be', i.e. 'are'.
See above, third sentence of this exercise, for details.
For patiyādāpetvā see Warder p.81. Note that khādaniyaṃ (singular) here is equivalent to 'dishes' (plural).
Ārocāpesi takes the dative like āroceti, see Warder p.68.
Note the regular aorist formation pakkami. The irregular formation pakkāmi is more common, see Warder p.24.
Note how the relative clause here follows the demonstrative clause, the relative pronoun being 'ye' and the related demonstrative pronoun being 'aññe'. Ye is in the accusative (i.e., the object of pavedeti), while aññe, which it relates to, is in the nominative. The number and gender, as they must be, are the same, see Warder p.71. Añña is declined like ya, see Warder p.74.
See 'Translate into English' section above, second sentence.
Āmantāpetvā, causative, 'having caused to be addressed'.
(brāhmaṇā) Nominative, not vocative, because the verb is in the third person. The vocative is used with verbs in the second person.
Kārāpesi, causative aorist.
1 Use the form of address to a monk.
2 Invert the order of the last two words (= emphasis or exclamation).