Part 19 - Exercise 13 Answers

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Exercise 13 - Answers

Passage for reading

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As a passage ...

te taṃ saṅkhaṃ uttānaṃ nipātesuṃ: vadehi bho saṅkha, vadehi bho saṅkhā ti. n'eva so saṅkho saddaṃ akāsi. te taṃ saṅkhaṃ passena nipātesuṃ … uddhaṃ ṭhapesuṃ … daṇdena ākoṭesuṃ … sandhuniṃsu1: vadehi bho saṅkha, vadehi bho saṅkhā ti. n'eva so saṅkho saddaṃ akāsi. atha kho tassa saṅkhadhamassa etad ahosi: yāva bālā ime paccantajā manussā. kathaṃ hi nāma ayoniso saṅkhasaddaṃ gavesissantī ti. tesam pekkhamānānaṃ2 saṅkhaṃ gahetvā tikkhattuṃ saṅkhaṃ upaḷāsitvā saṅkhaṃ ādāya pakkāmi.

They put down that conch stretched out, saying: "Speak, Sir Conch! Speak, Sir Conch!" That conch certainly did not make a sound. They put down that conch on the side ... they made (it) stand up ... they struck (it) with a stick ... they shook (it) saying: "Speak, Sir Conch! Speak, Sir Conch!" That conch certainly did not make a sound. Then, that conch-blower thought this: "To what extent these borderer people are fools. For how can they search (so) unwisely for the conch-sound?" While they were watching, he, having grasped the conch, having sounded the conch thrice, having taken the conch, went away.

... or as separate parts ...

te taṃ saṅkhaṃ uttānaṃ nipātesuṃ:

They put down that conch stretched out, saying:

(down) Nipātesṃ, aorist causative (see Warder p.81).

(stretched out) i.e., they laid it down flat.

The following sentence ends in ti which here marks direct speech, thus 'saying'.

vadehi bho saṅkha, vadehi bho saṅkhā ti.

"Speak, Sir Conch! Speak, Sir Conch!"

(speak) Vadehi, imperative, see Warder p.35.

See Alphabet table from Lesson 1 (opens in new tab)

n'eva so saṅkho saddaṃ akāsi.

That conch certainly did not make a sound.

(certainly) Eva, adds emphasis.

te taṃ saṅkhaṃ passena nipātesuṃ …

They put down that conch on the side ...

Passena, indeclinable or instrumental of manner, see Warder p.45.

uddhaṃ ṭhapesuṃ …

they made (it) stand up ...

Ṭhapesuṃ, see Warder p.81.

daṇdena ākoṭesuṃ …

they struck (it) with a stick ...

sandhuniṃsu1:

they shook (it) saying:

vadehi bho saṅkha, vadehi bho saṅkhā ti.

"Speak, Sir Conch! Speak, Sir Conch!"

n'eva so saṅkho saddaṃ akāsi.

That conch certainly did not make a sound.

atha kho tassa saṅkhadhamassa etad ahosi:

Then, that conch-blower thought this:

(conch-blower) Saṅkhadhama = saṅkha ('conch') + dhama ('blower'), a genitive tappurisa compound. That is, the case relationship between the two members of the compound, saṅkha and dhamo, is the genitive, 'blower of the conch'. The compound as a whole is also genitive, thus the ending '-ssa'. See Warder pp.77-78.

Or 'it occurred to him', lit. 'of that conch-blower there was this'. The standard Pali idiom used to express thinking, see Warder p.56.

yāva bālā ime paccantajā manussā.

"To what extent these borderer people are fools.

Two adjectives and a pronoun preceding the noun that they qualify, i.e. manussā, 'people'. This is an emphatic construction; usually only one adjective precedes the noun (see Warder p.61). Note again the lack of a verb, the verb 'to be' must be added.

kathaṃ hi nāma ayoniso saṅkhasaddaṃ gavesissantī ti.

For how can they search (so) unwisely for the conch-sound?"

(how can) Kathaṃ hi nāma. Goes with the future tense, the meaning being indignation/disapproval, see Warder p.55. The future tense is not suitable for the English translation. (The point of course is to retain the meaning of the Pali, i.e. indignation/disapproval, not the literal tense of the verb.)

(unwisely) Ayoniso, none of Warder's translations fit the context very well.

(conch-sound) Saṅkhasaddaṃ = saṅkha ('conch') + sadda ('sound'), a genitive tappurisa compound, 'sound of the conch', see Warder pp.77-78.

tesam pekkhamānānaṃ2 saṅkhaṃ gahetvā tikkhattuṃ saṅkhaṃ upaḷāsitvā saṅkhaṃ ādāya pakkāmi.

While they were watching, he, having grasped the conch, having sounded the conch thrice, having taken the conch, went away.

(were watching) Genitive absolute, see Warder p.58. When the genitive absolute is formed with the present participle (here pekkhamānānaṃ) the action is usually simultaneous with the action of the main verb of the sentence (here pakkāmi, aorist). Thus I translate 'were watching' to agree with 'went away', both past tense.

Note that the following four verbs (grasped, sounded, taken, went away) all have the same agent. That the agent is 'he' (i.e. the conch-blower) is known from the context and from the final verb pakkāmi (third person singular aorist).

(having taken) Or 'taking', see Warder p.48.


1 Aorist of saṃ-dhū (V: Lesson 15), "to shake."

2 Genitive absolute, cf. Lesson 10.

Translate into English

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brāhmaṇo mante vācesi

The brahmin taught recited the hymns.

Vācesi, aorist, lit. 'caused to speak/recite'. Since recitation was the brahmin way of learning their tradition, this becomes 'to teach'.

(hymns) Mante, accusative plural.

so taṃ cittaṃ bhāveti

He develops that thought.

(develops) Bhāveti, causative of bhavati, 'to be'. 'To cause to be' is to bring into existence, i.e. to develop.

(thought) Cittaṃ usually means 'mind', but in context it is a 'thought' or 'wish' that he is cultivating.

na taṃ (2nd. person) deva paccatthikānaṃ demi

Your Majesty (deva), I am not giving you (up) to the enemies.

(giving) Again note how the Pali present tense demi can be translated as either 'I give' or 'I am giving'.

(you) Taṃ. Accusative of tvaṃ.

(enemies) Dative. Verbs meaning to give (and similar concepts) are usually associated with the dative, i.e. dative of advantage (for the receiver).

ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo

This is the origin of suffering.

Dukkhasamudayo = dukkha ('suffering') + samudayo ('origin'), a genitive tappurisa compound (see Warder p.77-78) equivalent to dukkhassa samudayo.

rājā kumārassa (dative) pāsāde kārāpesi

The King caused palaces mansions to be made for the Prince.

(mansions to be made) Or 'had mansions made', causative, see Warder p.80. Kārāpesi is either second person singular present tense or third person singular aorist (the forms are identical), but since rājā is the agent (i.e., third person) only the second alternative is possible.

Again, dative of advantage.


so iminā ca ariyena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato iminā ariyena indriyasaṃvarena samannāgato ... vivittaṃ senāsanaṃ bhajati: araññaṃ rukkhamūlaṃ, pabbataṃ, ... abbhokāsaṃ palālapuñjaṃ

He, endowed with this noble collection of virtue, and endowed with this noble restraint of the senses ... resorts to an isolated abode: a forest, the root of a tree, a mountain ... the open air, a heap of straw.

(collection of virtue) Sīlakkhandhena = sīla ('virtue') + (k) khandha ('collection'), genitive tappurisa compound. Again note that genitive here refers to the internal structure of the compound. The compound as a whole (and thus its relationship to other words in the sentence) is instrumental.

(restraint of the senses) Indriyasaṃvarena = indriya ('sense(s)') + saṃvara ('restraint'), another genitive tappurisa compound.

(resorts) Note how 'he' (so) is the agent of three separate clauses, each with a separate verb (i.e., samannāgato twice and bhajati).

(root of a tree) i.e., the foot of a tree. Rukkhamūlaṃ = rukkha ('tree') + mūla ('root'), another genitive tappurisa compound.

(the open air) Warder takes abbhokāsaṃ to be an adjective qualifying palālapuñjaṃ, but normally it is understood to be a noun.

(heap of straw) Palālapuñjaṃ = palāla ('straw') + puñja ('heap'), still another genitive tappurisa compound, see Warder pp.77-78.


idha tathāgatena anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavattitaṃ

Here the unsurpassed wheel of the Dhamma was set going by the Tathāgata.

(wheel of Dhamma) Dhammacakkaṃ = dhammassa cakkaṃ, again a genitive tappurisa compound.

(set going) Pavattitaṃ is a past participle of the causative, i.e. 'caused to go'. This is an example of the past participle in the nominative singular neuter (pavattitaṃ) being used as the main sentence verb, see Warder p.42. The past participle still agrees with its object (anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ), this being a passive sentence.

idaṃ paṇītaṃ

This is excellent.

ye mālaṃ āropessanti, tesaṃ taṃ bhavissati sukhāya

Whoever puts a garland on top of (it), that will be for their happiness.

(Whoever) Ye, lit. 'who', plural.

(puts) Lit. 'will put'. Āropessanti is probably future due to 'attraction' to bhavissati (see Warder pp.87-88). That is, bhavissati (the verb of the main clause) is required to be future tense on account of the meaning, and thus the verb of the relative clause (āropessanti) will also tend to be future.

(a garland on top of (it)) Note the relative clause/demonstrative clause construction. The context is the honouring of a stupa containing Buddha-relics.

(for their) Tesaṃ, either dative, 'for/to them', or genitive, 'their'/'of them'. It is often impossible to know for certain whether a particular construction is dative or genitive (here it is probably dative due to the advantage obtained), see Warder p.69. In practice, whether a particular expression is dative or genitive, does not usually significantly affect the meaning.

(happiness) Sukhāya, dative, lit. 'for the purpose of happiness'.

tvaṃ pana samma Jīvaka kiṃ tuṇhī

But, dear Jīvaka, why are you silent?

(why) Kiṃ here functions as an indeclinable, which purpose it is to make the sentence interrogative, see Warder p.74.

Again, a sentence without a verb. Add 'to be', i.e. 'are'.

kacci maṃ samma Jīvaka na paccatthikānaṃ desi

I hope (kacci), dear Jīvaka, you are not giving me (up) to the enemies?

See above, third sentence of this exercise, for details.

Translate into Pali, using compounds where indicated by hyphens:

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This is the cessation-of-unhappiness.

Ayaṃ dukkhanirodho.

(It is) now the time-for-extinction of the fortunate one.

Parinibbānakālo dāni Bhagavato.

Cunda the son-of-a-smith, having had delicious dishes prepared, had the time announced to the fortunate one: "(it is) time, sir,1 the meal (is) ready"2.

Cundo kammāraputto paṇītaṃ khādaniyaṃ patiyādāpetvā Bhagavato kālaṃ ārocāpesi: 'Kālo bhante niññhitaṃ bhattan-ti.

For patiyādāpetvā see Warder p.81. Note that khādaniyaṃ (singular) here is equivalent to 'dishes' (plural).

Ārocāpesi takes the dative like āroceti, see Warder p.68.

The lion, king-of-the-beasts, went out.

Sīho migarājā pakkami (or nikkhami).

Note the regular aorist formation pakkami. The irregular formation pakkāmi is more common, see Warder p.24.

There are (atthi: the singular verb may be used for the plural also in this sense) other profound, delightful, doctrines which the 'thus-gone' makes known.

Atthi aññe dhammā gambhīrā paṇītā, ye Tathāgato pavedeti.

Note how the relative clause here follows the demonstrative clause, the relative pronoun being 'ye' and the related demonstrative pronoun being 'aññe'. Ye is in the accusative (i.e., the object of pavedeti), while aññe, which it relates to, is in the nominative. The number and gender, as they must be, are the same, see Warder p.71. Añña is declined like ya, see Warder p.74.


He develops that thought.

So taṃ cittaṃ bhāveti.

See 'Translate into English' section above, second sentence.

The king, having had the priests invited, said this: "let the priests see the boy".

Rājā brāhmaṇe āmantāpetvā etad avoca: ‘‘Passantu brāhmaṇā kumāran‘‘-ti.

Āmantāpetvā, causative, 'having caused to be addressed'.

(brāhmaṇā) Nominative, not vocative, because the verb is in the third person. The vocative is used with verbs in the second person.

The king, having made the boy sit down, instructs (him).

Rājā kumāraṃ nisīdāpetvā anusāsati.

The priest had a new house built to the east (instrumental or accusative) of the city.

Brāhmaṇo puratthimena (or puratthimaṃ) nagarassa navaṃ agāraṃ kārāpesi.

Kārāpesi, causative aorist.

Recite the prayers! (plural)

Mante vācetha.

I set free the goats.

Ahaṃ aje muñcāpemi.


1 Use the form of address to a monk.

2 Invert the order of the last two words (= emphasis or exclamation).