Part 22 - Lesson #15 & #16
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Verbs of the ki or fifth conjugation (kiyādi gaṇa) form present stems with the suffix nā. The personal endings are the same as for the first conjugation. From the root (ñ)ñā, "to know" (learn, find out), which before the present suffix is changed to jā, we have:
Similarly conjugated are:
|abhi-(ñ)ñā||abhijānāti||he knows, he is aware of, he ascertains, he discovers
|ā-(ñ)ñā||ājānāti||he learns, he grasps (fig.)|
|(p)pa-(ñ)ñā||pajānāti||he understands, he has insight|
|vi(ñ)ñā||vijānāti||he is conscious of, he discerns|
|saṃ-(ñ)ñā||saṃjānāti||he experiences, he perceives|
In some verbs the suffix is ṇā with cerebral ṇ:
The root (g)gah, "to take", "to seize", inverts the order of the final consonant of the root and the ṇ (which is cerebral) of the suffix:
|u(d)-(g)gah||uggaṇhāti||he learns, he memorizes|
Other tenses are formed as follows:
Imperative:- jānātu (3rd sing.), jānāhi (2nd sing.: always with -hi), etc.
Optative:- jāneyya, etc. (also a rarer form, jaññā, of the 3rd person sing.)
Present participle:- jānaṃ or jānanto (masc. nom. sing.), jānatā (ins.), etc.
Aorist:- aññāsi ((ñ)ñā and ā-(ñ)ñā), jāniṃsu (for aorist of (s)su, see Lesson 12)
Future:- jānissati, etc.
Gerund:- aññāya (from ā-(ñ)ñā, ā shortened before the doubled consonant; ñatvā from (ñ)ñā itself is not often used); abhiññāya; sutvā; gahetvā
Past participle:- ñāta (aññāta is usually the negative: "unknown"); suta; gahīta (sometimes gahita)
Two or more nouns forming a list can be made into a compound instead of being connected by the particle ca. (cf. in English "fourteen" = "four and ten"). This type of compound is called dvanda ("twin").
candimasuriyā (plural) - "the sun and the moon"
samaṇabrāhmaṇā (plural) - "priests and ascetics"
Sāriputtamoggallānaṃ (neuter singular), "Moggallana and Sariputta" (the two leading disciples of the Buddha)
pattacīvaraṃ, "robe and bowl"
Negative and other Prefixes to Nouns
Nouns (including adjectives) can be made negative by adding the prefix a, which before vowels becomes an.
akusala = non-good
amanusso = non-human
avijjā = non-knowledge
ananta = un-ending : an
Finite verbs are not negatived in this way, but participles may be:
vimutta = freed
avimutta = not freed
anuppanna = not arisen
adinna = not-given
present participles and gerunds are more rarely negatived:
adisvā = not having seen
appahāya = not having renounced
Other prefixes added to nouns, etc., are
su = well, good
du(r), = ill, bad
and they cover a wide range of similar conceptions - easy/difficult, pleasant/unpleasant, etc.:
subhāsita = well-spoken
dullabha = rare (hard to get: labh).
|abhi-u(d)-gam||abbhuggata||disseminated, spread (report)|
|saṃ-nah||sannaddha||tied up (h + t > ddh)|
|kāmo||love, passion, liking, pleasure|
|eva||(enclitic; in junction sometimes va or yeva) only, alone, just, surely
|no||not (emphatic form of na)
The answers are given in Part 23
Passage for reading
te ubho sāṇabhāraṃ ādāya yen' aññataraṃ gāmapadaṃ ten' upasaṃkamiṃsu. tatth' addasaṃsu pahūtaṃ sāṇasuttaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ. disvā sahāyako sahāyakaṃ āmantesi: yassa kho samma atthāya iccheyyāma sāṇaṃ, idaṃ pahūtaṃ sāṇasuttaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ. tena hi samma tvañ ca sāṇabhāraṃ chaḍḍehi, ahañ ca sāṇabhāraṃ chaḍḍessāmi. ubho sāṇasuttabharaṃ ādāya gamissāmā ti. ayaṃ kho me samma sāṇabhāro durābhato ca susannaddho ca. alam1 me; tvaṃ pajānāhī ti. atha kho so sahāyako sāṇabhāraṃ chaḍḍetvā sāṇasuttabhāraṃ ādiyi.
1 A final ṃ may be assimilated to a following labial when the words are closely connected grammatically. It may become m also when a vowel follows, under the same conditions (in verse under stress of metre too, since ṃ makes the preceding syllable long whilst m does not).
Translate into English
tena hi brāhmaṇa suṇāhi
na tvaṃ imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ ājānāsi. ahaṃ imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ ājānāmi
idha tathāgato jāto
ko imaṃ dhammaṃ khippam eva ājānissati
ekacco dānaṃ deti samaṇassa vā brāhmaṇassa vā annaṃ pānaṃ vatthaṃ yānaṃ mālāgandhavilepanaṃ seyyāvasathapadīpeyyaṃ
ko nu kho papa bho jānāti.1 madanīyā kāmā
jānāhi yadi vā taṃ bhavantaṃ Gotamaṃ tathā santaṃ2 yeva saddo abbhuggato, yadi vā no tathā
tassa evaṃ jānato evaṃ passato kāmāsavā pi cittaṃ vimuccati bhavāsavā pi cittaṃ vimuccati avijjāsavā pi cittaṃ vimuccati
yaṃ kiñ ci samudayadhammaṃ, sabban taṃ nirodhadhammaṃ
n' atthi jātassa amaraṇaṃ
1 This is an idiom and may be translated "who knows?", "you never know", "you never can tell".
2 Present participle of as, cf. Lesson 8.
Traslate into Pali
What I know, you know what you know, I know
I learn the saying of the fortunate one
He will grasp what I explain (fut.) quickly
After some time he hears the excellent doctrine
The fortunate one, taking robe-and-bowl, entered Rājagaha1 for alms
Stop! Ananda, don't grieve
He understands that (use direct speech) these beings (are) endowed with bad-conduct-of-the-body
Not-memorizing that speech, I left
Why (is) this unexplained by the philosopher Gotama?
You (plur.) have gone forth from house to homelessness
1 Capital of Magadha.
The seventh or locative (sattamī, bhumma, adhikaraṇa, okāsa) case expresses the place where, the time when or the situation in which an action takes place. The plural is used to express the society in which the action takes place.
The locative is also used in the senses of "about", "in the case of", "with reference to" (e.g.: "to agree on some points"), "in the situation of", and in certain idioms meaning: knowledge "about", doubt "about", established "in" office or "in" circumspect behaviour, training "under" a teacher and confidence "in" him, putting "into" a jar, disappearing "in" (from) a place. It is frequently used in an "absolute" construction (equivalent to a subordinate clause).
Masculine and neuter nouns in a have the locative inflections e in the singular and esu in the plural: loke, "in the world"; devesu, "among the gods."
Feminines in ā have either āyaṃ or simply āya in the singular and āsu in the plural: kathāyaṃ, kathāya, kathāsu.
The demonstrative and relative pronouns have the following locative inflections:
masculine and neuter: yasmiṃ or yamhi
feminine: yāyaṃ or yāya or yassaṃ
masculine and neuter: yesu
From idaṃ- Singular:
masculine and neuter: asmiṃ or imasmiṃ
feminine: imāyaṃ or imāya
From idaṃ- Plural:
masculine and neuter: imesu;
Examples of the use of the locative:
|dhammā raññe||"qualities in a king"|
|Nālandāyaṃ viharanto||"dwelling in Nalanda"|
|rukkhamūle nisinnaṃ||"seated at the foot of a tree" (literally "at the root", which is appropriate for a tropical tree)
|devatā ākāse||"deities in the sky"|
|tasmiṃ samaye vedanaṃ vedeti||"he feels a sensation on that occasion"|
|vassānaṃ pacchime māse||"in the last month of the rainy season"|
|tasmiṃ yaññe … na rukkhā chijjiṃsu||"in that sacrifice … no trees were cut down"|
|āpadāsu na vijahati||"he does not abandon (him) in misfortune"|
|Māgadhesu viharati||"he lives in Magadha" (literally "among the Magadhans")|
|idam pi 'ssa hoti silasmiṃ||"he has this as regards (moral) character"|
|citte cittānupassī viharati||"with reference to the mind, he lives observing the mind"
|dhammesu … ñaṇaṃ||"knowledge of (about) phenomena"|
|kaṅkhā … dhamme||"doubt about the doctrine"
|jīvite apekhaṃ||"hope for life"|
(the locative may also be used after yad idaṃ)
|pettike ṭhāne ṭhapesi||"appointed (him) in his father's place"|
|satipaṭṭhānesu supatiṭṭhitacitta||"(whose) mind is well established in the conditions of self-possession" (sati is variously translated, usually by "mindfulness")
|pasanno ahaṃ bhagavati||"I have confidence in the fortunate one" (Loc. Sg. of bhagavant)|
|dhamme pasannā||"she has confidence in the doctrine"|
|bhagavati brahmacariyaṃ caritvā||"having lived the God-like life under the fortunate one"|
|brahmaloke antarahito||"vanished from God's world" (and appeared on Earth)
(this is by supernatural power – iddhi - of a monk or deity: ordinary mortals can move away only gradually as expressed by the ablative case).
The locative absolute consists (like the genitive absolute, cf. Lesson 10) of a nexus of noun (or pronoun) + participle. Both are in the locative case. The noun is agent to the participle, which is often but not necessarily passive, and this agent cannot be the same as the agent of the main sentence within which the absolute construction forms a subordinate clause.
Further words inflected in the locative in concord with the locative agent, such as adjectives, pronouns, and predicate nouns, may be included in the absolute construction. If the participle has a patient, instrument, etc., this will be in its proper case (accusative, etc.).
parinibbute bhagavati … Sakko …imaṃ gāthaṃ abhāsi
"when the fortunate one was 'liberated' … Sakka … spoke this verse"
imasmiṃ ca pana veyyākaraṇasmiṃ bhaññamāne Sakkassa … dhammacakkhuṃ udapādi
"and moreover as this explanation was being spoken … the 'eye of the doctrine' arose in ('of') Sakka"
upādāne kho sati bhavo hoti
"attachment being, existence is", "when there is attachment there is existence"
Disampatimhi raññe kālakate … rājaputtaṃ rajje abhisiñciṃsu
"after king Disampati died … they consecrated the prince in the kingdom."
Future Passive Participle
A future participle (kicca) formed with the suffixes tabba, anīya or ya is normally passive, like the past participle.
The sense of the future passive participle is generally not simply future but rather imperative or optative: "this must be done", "this should be done", "this ought to be done", also "this can be done".
A strong form of the root is normally used in the future passive participle:
future passive participle
|with the suffix tabba (or itabba):|
|(k)kam||kamitabba||to be walked|
|kar||kātabba||to be done|
|gam||gantabba||to be gone, must be gone
|car||caritabba||must be lived, to be practised
|jīv||jīvitabba||to be lived|
|(ñ)ñā||jānitabba||to be known|
|dā||dātabba||to be given, must be given, should be given|
|(d)dis||daṭṭhabba||to be seen, must be seen (as), should be viewed, must be envisaged, should be considered (in such and such a way)|
|pad||pajjitabba (on present stem)||(used with various prefixes in the corresponding meanings)|
|pā||pātabba||to be drunk|
|pucch||pucchitabba||to be asked|
|bhās||bhāsitabba||to be spoken, should be spoken|
|vac||vattabba||to be spoken|
|vid (II)||veditabba||to be known, to be found out, to be discovered, to be ascertained|
|(s)su||sotabba||to be heard|
|sev||sevitabba||to be indulged in, to be pursued|
|han||hantabba||to be killed|
|kar||kāretabba||must be caused to be made, should be caused to be made|
|(ṭ)ṭhā||ṭhāpetabba||to be established|
|bhū||bhāvetabba||to be developed|
|with the suffix anīya:|
|kam||kamanīya||to be loved, lovely|
|kar||karaṇiya1||what must be done; duty, business (neuter)|
|(k)kham||khamanīya||to be pleased; pleasure, contentment (neuter)|
|khād||khādanīya||to be chewed; (hard) foods (neuter)|
|(d)dis||dassanīya||what must be seen, beautiful|
|bhuj||bhojanīya||to be eaten; (soft) foods (neuter)|
|mad (III) ("to become intoxicated")||madanīya||intoxicating|
|rañj (I) ("to become impassioned", "to be excited about") ||rajanīya||exciting|
|ram||ramaṇīya1||to be delighted in, delightful|
|vac||vacanīya||to be said, what ought to be said|
|with the suffix ya (or yya):|
|kar||kicca||to be done, what should be done; business (neuter)|
|dā||deyya||to be given, gift (neuter)|
|pā||peyya||to be drunk|
|labh||labbha||to be obtained, possible|
1 When the suffix follows a root containing the letter r, the n is often cerebralized to ṇ. This cerebralization of ṇ is seen in some other suffixes under similar conditions. As a rule it occurs only when no consonant which would move the tongue intervenes (thus it does not occur in rajanīya).
Examples of the use of the future passive participle:
As impersonal (neuter or agreeing with patient, if expressed) passive, with agent in instrumental:
te vo bhāvetabbā - See Verb Conjugation & Pronoun Declension Table (opens in new tab)
"they must be developed by you"
"a pagoda should be built"
iminā … pariyāyena veditabbaṃ
"it should be ascertained in this way ('by this course')"
"how should one proceed (behave, conduct oneself)?"
Sometimes the future passive participle is accompanied (followed) by the present or future tense of a verb meaning "to be" ("periphrastic construction": Lesson 24):
… maggo gantabbo hoti
" … the road has to be travelled"
maggo kho me gantabbo bhavissati
"the road will have to be travelled by me", "I shall have to travel along the road"
n' amhi kena ci upasaṃkamitabbo
"I am not to be approached (visited) by anyone."
The future passive participle is used with man (III: "think") to express what one thinks (present), thought (aorist) or might think (optative) of doing or suitable to be done:
"he may think it (an assembly) is to be approached", "he might consider it worth approaching."
As adjective (see also rajanīyo, etc., in the passage in Exercise 12):
"the mountain is delightful"
As a noun:
pure vacanīyaṃ pacchā avaca
"you said last (after) what ought to be said first (before)"
A class of compound somewhat similar to the tappurisa (and sometimes included in it as a sub-variety) is the kammadhāraya. Like the tappurisa, the kammadhāraya compound functions as a noun, but in this class the two component words refer to the same locus or object (cf. in English "blackbird"). In place of relation we have identity of locus, the first member being an attribute of the second. If they were not compounded, the members would have to be in the same case, since they would be noun and attribute or two nouns in apposition. If a tappurisa were divided, the first member would show the case relation inherent in the compound, the second member the same case as the original compound, determined by its function in the sentence. If a kammadhāraya were divided, the second member would again retain the same case as the original compound, but so would the first, since it would have to agree with the second in case.
"an untimely cloud": megho = "cloud"; "untimely": i.e. out of the usual season.
"king-sage": rājan + isi with elision of the -an of the stem rājan.
"unlawful acting"; (for -kāro see Lesson 14). adhamma = "non-law"
"wheel jewel", might be interpreted as a simple apposition or as a comparison: a jewel shaped like a wheel. (The wheel-jewel is one of seven symbolic gems supposed to appear when there is a "universal emperor" in the world.)
Frequently in Pali texts a passage is repeated verbatim or with only one or two words changed. This is often indicated by giving only the opening words of the passage followed by the word pe, "and so on", "etc.," itself an abbreviation of the word peyyāla, "etcetera."
|u(d)-(g)ghah (I) (to make wet)||uggharati||it oozes|
|(p)pa-(g)ghar (I)||paggharati||it trickles, it drips|
|car (I)||carati||he proceeds, lives, conducts, carries on (it is difficult to give a general equivalent, car means following a particular way of life, as animals grazing, monks begging, etc.)|
|(p)pa-(t)thar (I) (to spread)||pattharati||he spreads out|
|pari-bhū (I)||paribhavati||he despises|
|makkh (VII)||makkheti||he smears|
|ā-rādh (VII)||ārādheti||he satisfies|
|(p)pa-vass (I) (to rain)||pavassati||it rains heavily|
|u(d)-vah (I) (to|
|ubbahati||he carries off|
|vi-har (I)||viharati||he dwells, he lives|
|aggo||(also means) tip, the supreme|
|amacco||minister (privy councillor)|
|candimā (masculine, stem candima-)||moon (used only in nominative singular and in compounds)
|vassaṃ||rain, rainy season (plural), year|
|sajjhu(ṃ) (neuter)||silver (stem in u, cf. Lesson 19)|
|saka||own ( = his own, her own, etc.)|
|mahant (inflected like bhagavant)||great|
|antarā||within, between, meanwhile, whilst
|pe||and so on, etc. (as abbreviation)
The answers are given in Part 24
Passages for reading
te yen' aññataraṃ gāmapadaṃ ten' upasaṃkamiṃsu. tatth' addasaṃsu pahūtaṃ khomaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ. disvā. pe. pahūtaṃ khomasuttaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ. disvā. pe. [a whole range of commodities of increasing value is enumerated] pe. pahūtaṃ suvaṇṇaṃ chaḍḍiṭaṃ. disvā sahāyako sahāyakaṃ āmantesi: yassa kho samma atthāya iccheyyāma sāṅaṃ vā sāṇasuttaṃ vā … sīsaṃ vā sajjhuṃ vā, idaṃ pahūtaṃ suvaṇṇaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ. tena hi samma tvañ ca sāṇabhāraṃ chaḍḍehi, ahañ ca sajjhubhāraṃ chaḍḍessāmi. ubho suvaṇṇabhāraṃ ādāya gamissāmā ti. ayaṃ kho me samma sāṇabhāro durābhato ca susannaddho ca. alam me; tvaṃ pajānāhi ti …
bhūtapubbaṃ aññataro sūkaraposako puriso sakamhā gāmā aññaṃ gāmaṃ agamāsi. tatth' addasā pahūtaṃ sukkhagūthaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ. disvān'1 assa etad ahosi: ayaṃ me bahuko sukkhagūtho chaḍḍito, mamañ ca sūkarabhattaṃ. yan nūnāhaṃ ito sukkhagūthaṃ hareyyan ti. so uttarāsaṅgaṃ pattharitvā pahūtaṃ sukkhagūthaṃ āharitvā bhaṇḍikaṃ bandhitvā sīse ubbāhetvā2 agamāsi. tassa antarā magge mahā akālamegho pāvassi. so uggharantaṃ paggharantaṃ yāva agganakhā gūthena makkhito gūthabhāraṃ ādāya agamāsi. tam enaṃ3 manussā disvā evam āhaṃsu4: kacci no tvaṃ bhaṇe ummatto, kacci veceto, kathaṃ hi nāma uggharantaṃ paggharantaṃ yāva, agganakhā gūthena makkhito gūthabhāraṃ harissasī ti. tumhe kho ettha bhaṇe ummattā tumhe vecetā tathā hi pana me sūkarabhattan ti.
1 disvāna is an archaic form of disvā used mostly in verse; sometimes the form disvān' is used in prose, when a vowel follows.
2 Causative in same meaning as simple verb; the double form of causative of this verb is used in the meaning "to have someone carry off".
3 enaṃ = "him" - accusative singular masculine of a pronoun of the 3rd person, used only in accusative as enclitic form.
4 āhaṃsu = "they said" - Lesson 21.
Translate into English
Bhagavā Rājagahe viharati
ime candimasuriyā parasmiṃ loke na imasmiṃ
kismiṃ vo viggaho, kismiṃ vivādo
evaṃ vutte aññataro rājāmacco rājānaṃ etad avoca
na dāni tena ciraṃ jīvitabbaṃ bhavissati
so bhotā raññā vippaṭisāro na karaṇīyo
na kho pan' etaṃ Poṭṭhapāda evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ
kiñ cid eva karaṇīyaṃ uppajji
idaṃ sevitabbaṃ, idaṃ na sevitabbaṃ
Translate into Pali
(this is a Pali passage for retranslation, given as literally as possible to show the construction of long sentences with conjunctive particles and direct speeches, as well as the repetitive and ponderous style of debating priests and philosophers in which much of the Pali Canon is written):
If (ce) now (va kho pana) I (put first) were to ask (optative) the philosopher Gotama a question, if (ce) in that connection the philosopher Gotama were to ask me thus: "Priest,1 this question, now (ca), should not be asked (future passive participle) thus, but (nāma) thus, priest, this question should be asked", this assembly would despise me for that (tena - place at beginning of clause): "The priest Soṇadaṇḍa is a fool (put first), unintelligent, he could (sak(k), aorist) not ask (pucchituṃ - infinitive of pucch, Lesson 19; place at end of clause) the philosopher Gotama a question consequently (precedes 'question')."
If now (as before) the philosopher Gotama were to ask me (put first) a question, and I were not to satisfy (optative) (his: omit) mind (accusative) with (my) explanation of his question, if in that connection the philosopher Gotama were to say to me (accusative) thus: "Priest, this question, now, should not be explained thus, but thus, priest, this question should be explained," this assembly would despise me for that: "The priest Soṇadaṇḍa is a fool, unintelligent, he couldn't satisfy (ārādhetuṃ - infinitive) (his) mind with (his) explanation of the philosopher Gotama's question."
1 Word order: "Not now this, priest, question thus should be asked."