Part 8 - Exercise 7 Answers and Lesson #8
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nimmitā. Note the nominative plural ending ā to agree with mayaṃ. The verb 'to be' has been added to give the passive sense of the past participle, thus 'been created'. The Pali past participle normally indicates the present perfect (see Warder p.40), thus 'have been created' rather than just 'are created'. The exact meaning of the past participle will depend on the context.
Note the change in word order from the previous example. Word order does not usually have any grammatical significance in Pali, see Warder p.15.
|(p)pa-(k)kam||pakkanta||gone away, left|
|kup (to be angry)||kupita||angered|
|adhi-gam the prefix adhi means “over”||adhigata||understood|
|ni-(g)gah (to seize, to grasp)||niggahīta||refuted|
|chaḍḍ||chaḍḍita||thrown away, abandoned|
|ni(r)-mā (to measure)||nimmita||created|
|vi-muc (to become free)||vimutta||freed|
|ni-rudh (to obstruct)||niruddha||stopped, ceased, ended|
|(s)su (to hear)||suta||heard|
jīvāhi, 'make a living', imperative second person singular, see Warder pp.34-35.
Note that although iminā and dhanena are separated, they still relate to each other on account of being in the same case.
Verb Conjugation & Pronoun Declension Table (opens in new tab)
Pali Noun Declension Table (opens in new tab)
puṭṭhā here agrees with te, both being nominative plural, lit. 'they have been asked'. Because the past participle agrees with the noun it relates to, like an adjective, and because it often acts like an adjective (see Warder p.41), one could also translate 'they who have been asked ... '.
vadanti is here the historical present tense, see Warder p.12.
The Pali present tense, here pavisanti, can be translated as an ordinary present tense, i.e. ‘they enter‘, or as a continuous action present tense, i.e. ‘they are entering‘. The context will decide which is more appropriate.
In this case 'are refuted' and 'have been refuted' have the same meaning, both having the present perfect sense. Compare this with the first sentence of this exercise where only 'have been created' (not 'are created') has the sense of present perfect.
The agent here is 'you', implied by the verb asi. niggahīto agrees with this 'you', thus the nominative singular ending. (The fact that the ending is masculine may be because the person spoken to is a man. The normal 'default' gender, i.e. if no gender is provided by the context, is neuter.)
Here the sense of the Pali does not seem to be present perfect and therefore I translate 'I'm tired', which refers to an 'existing state'. Alternatively, if one thinks the present perfect sense is preferable, one could translate 'I have become tired'.
detha, imperative second person plural. Whether it is imperative or present tense must be decided by the context.
1 desito placed at the beginning for emphasis. As a rule departures from the usual word order in prose indicates emphasis, strong emotion.
2 ṃ may change to m when a vowel follows.
3 asi with elision of the first vowel.
me is here the enclitic form of mayā, ‘by me‘. An alternative rendering would be the well know phrase evam me sutaṃ. In the original Pali text kho pana, ‘but‘, is inserted to indicate continuation from the previous text.
ahaṃ is optional, see Warder p.13.
Present participles (missakiriyā), active in meaning, ... They indicate an action which takes place simultaneously with (missa) the main action of the sentence.
From bhū are formed the stems bhavant and bhavamāna, both meaning "being". The nt stem, which is much more commonly used for almost all verbs, is inflected as follows, for example from gam:
|nominative||gacchaṃ or gacchanto|
From other conjugations, masculine nominative singular: karonto, "doing" ; paññāpento, "declaring."
The forms in māna are inflected in exactly the same way as other nouns in a. From as we have as stem samāna, "being".
Present participles are used like "adjectives" (as past participles may be) "qualifying" nouns, with which they agree in gender, case, and number.
The Pronoun bhavant
bhavant is inflected like gacchant when it means "being". From the same stem is formed the honorific pronoun bhavant, "you", "sir", "your honour", "his honour", which has largely divergent inflections:
|nominative||bhavaṃ||bhavanto or bhonto
(by contraction of ava > o)
The gerund (pubbakiriyā), an indeclinable participle, is used to express an action preceding (pubba) the action of the main verb of a sentence.
It may thus conclude a subordinate clause.
The agent of the gerund is the same as that of the main action.
Complex sentences are constructed with clauses concluded by participles or gerunds preceding the main clause with the main verb. In this way the agent is described as performing a group or series of actions. Each clause may have its own patient (i.e. gerunds may take patients in the accusative, like other verb forms).
The gerund is usually (but far from always) formed from the same stem as the past participle by adding the suffixes tvā, itvā, or ya:
|kar||katvā||having done; karitvā is also used|
(the prefix u(d) means "up")
|uṭṭhāya||having stood up|
|ā-dā||ādāya||having taken (often equivalent to simply "taking" in English)|
|vi-vic (to separate)||vivicca||having become separated from, having become isolated
(vic + ya > vicca)
|(p)pati-(s)su||paṭissutvā||having agreed, having assented|
|ji||jayati||he conquers, he wins, he defeats|
|labh||labhati||he obtains, he gets|
|(p)pa-su (to crush, to extract (liquids), to produce)||pasavati||he generates|
|daṇḍo||stick, force, punishment|
|bhūto||living being (p.p. of bhū used as a noun)|
|cittaṃ||thought, mind, heart (figuratively)|
|nibbānaṃ, parinibbānaṃ||extinction (of existence), liberation (from existence), Nirvāṇa1
|bhāsitaṃ||speaking, saying (p.p. of bhās used as a noun)|
|vatthaṃ||garment (plural: clothes, dress)|
|senāsanaṃ||abode, resting place|
1 The prefix pari is generally used when referring not to Nirvāṇa itself as a state, or non-state, but to the event of an individual's (final) attainment of it at the end of his worldly life, and especially to the Parinibbana of the Buddha himself.
|diṭṭhā||excellent, splendid!, it's lucky, it's wonderful|
|surely, indeed! (strong emphasis or mild expletive, expressing a wish, regret, reproach or surprise: cf. "alas!", "I say!")
ahaṃ tena samayena rājā Mahāsudassano ahosiṃ
dānena n' atthi puññaṃ
te 'haṃ1 upasaṃkamitvā evaṃ vadāmi
maṃ abhivādetvā pakkāmi
disvā evaṃ avocumha
diṭṭhā bho satta jīvasi
jayaṃ veraṃ pasavati
brāhmaṇo brahmunā manteti
evaṃ bho ti
handa vata bho gacchāma
kālaṃ karonto avoca
rājā samāno idaṃ labhati
mayaṃ bhagavantaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāma, dhammañ ca2
1 ahaṃ with elision of initial a after another vowel.
2 Assimilation ṃ + c > ñc in junction.
Translate into Pali
They enter by this gate
The king, having greeted the fortunate one, sat down
Having approached (and) greeted the fortunate one, they sat down
Having approached them I ask these questions
Having dressed, taking a bowl I entered the village
Gentlemen! do not say thus
The honourable Jotipāla went forth
(As he is) going he sees
I do not take counsel with God
He entered the house
He gives a drink
I do not get food
He sees the garment
He is (hoti) satisfied with the resting place
Living beings experience unhappiness
The lay disciples come to the place