Part 2 - Exercise 1 Answers and Lesson #2
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(I say so)
(The lay disciple who is a son sees)
(The human being makes a living)
(They speak thus)
The nominative plural of masculine nouns in a has the inflection ā. e.g. gāmā, "villages".
The lay disciple asks
The lay disciples ask
puriso evaṃ vadati
The man speaks thus
purisā evaṃ vadanti
The men speak thus
|vis (to enter) (with prefix (p)pa)||pavisati||he enters|
|phus||phusati||he touches, reaches, attains|
|is||icchati||he wishes, he desires|
|gam(with prefix ā)||āgacchati||he comes|
|(ṭ)ṭhā||tiṭṭhati||he stands, remains, stays|
|dā||dadāti or deti||he gives|
|hā (with prefix (p)pa)||pajahati||he gives up, renounce|
|(v) vaj (to go) (with prefix (p)pa)||pabbajati||he goes forth, sent away|
|(j) jhe||jhāyati||he meditates, burns|
|i||eti||he goes, come|
|i (with prefix upa)||upeti||he goes to|
The "patient" (kamma) which undergoes the action of an active verb (the "direct object") is expressed by the "accusative " (dutiyā, upayoga) case ending. Masculines in a have the accusative singular inflection aṃ. e.g.:
purisaṃ bandhati - "he binds the man"
samaṇaṃ vadati - "he says to the ascetic"
The accusative case is also used to express the goal of motion:
gāmaṃ pavisati - "he enters the village "
The accusative case may likewise express the (extent of) space traversed:
maggaṃ paṭipajjati - "he follows the road"
(paṭipajjati is a third conjugation verb)
The accusative is used for an attribute of another accusative:
khattiyo brahmaṅaṃ mahāmattaṃ passati - "the warrior sees the priest who is the minister "
This type of construction includes such sentences as "he declares (that) time (is) the cause", where kālo ("time") and paccayo ("condition", "cause") will both be in the accusative (kālaṃ paccayaṃ …).
Some verbs take two patients (dvikammaka). These include verbs meaning to call, tell, or ask (someone something), and to take or bring (something somewhere):
samaṅaṃ atthaṃ pucchāmi -
"I ask the philosopher the meaning (attho)"
The accusative is used to express the pure duration of time …
aḍḍhamāsaṃ āgacchati - "he comes after a fortnight "
ekaṃ samayaṃ … – "one time …", "once …"
(beginning a narrative)
The accusative singular neuter form of some adjectives is used as an "adverb":
rassa ("short" - adjective in -a) > rassaṃ passasāmi, "I breathe out shortly", i.e. expel a short breath
The accusative plural inflection of masculines in a is e. e.g. upāsake passati - "he sees the lay disciples".
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
Verbs which can take a patient are called "transitive" (sakammaka). Verbs which cannot take a patient are called "intransitive" (akammaka).
Nouns inflected like loko:
|attho||goal, prosperity, wealth, welfare, purpose, meaning, subject-matter|
|dhammo||(true, natural) doctrine, natural element, natural substance, natural phenomenon|
|pamādo||heedless, negligence, pastime|
|bhavo||existence, good fortune|
|vādo||doctrine, debate, argument, statement|
|sugato||well-gone (title of the Buddha)|
sugato dhammaṃ bhāsati
upāsako pattaṃ āharati
manussā bhavaṃ icchanti
tathāgato sugato hoti
brāhmaṇo purise pucchati
samaṇe atthaṃ pucchanti
Translate into Pali
They go to the minister
The men see the ministers
The god, who is not a human being, approaches the "thus gone"
You ask the philosopher (about) the doctrine
We ask the philosopher who is "well gone"
The "thus-gone" gives up negligence
The lay disciples enter the village
The ascetics meditate
The substance remains
He reaches the top
We ask the philosopher the meaning
He gives alms