Part 2 - Exercise 1 Answers and Lesson #2

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Exercise 1 - Answers

Translate into English

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tathāgato bhāsati

The 'thus-gone' speaks

upāsako pucchati

The lay disciple asks

puriso evaṃ vadati

The man speaks thus

devo amanusso hoti

The deva is not human

evaṃ vadāmi

I speak thus
(I say so)

khattiyo pakkamati

The warrior (noble) caste person departs

mahāmatto nisīdati

The minister sits down

samaṇo tathāgato hoti

The acetic is the tathāgata

putto upāsako passati

The son who is a lay disciple sees
(The lay disciple who is a son sees)

brāhmaṇo upasaṃkamati

The priest approaches

manusso jīvati

The human being lives
(The human being makes a living)

evaṃ vadaṅti

They say so
(They speak thus)

Translate into Pali

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The man speaks

puriso bhāsati

The ascetic is 'thus-gone'

samaṇo tathāgato hoti

The priest goes away

brāhmaṇo pakkamati

The god says so

devo evaṃ bhāsati

There is a time

samayo hoti

The son sits down

putto nisīdati

The minister is a priest

mahāmatto brāhmaṇo hoti

The noble approaches

khattiyo upasaṃkamati

The god dies

devo cavati

You say so (Sing.)

evaṃ vadasi

You say so (Plur.)

evaṃ vadatha

We say so

evaṃ vadāma

Lesson 2

Nominative Plural

The nominative plural of masculine nouns in a has the inflection ā. e.g. gāmā, "villages".

upāsako pucchati
The lay disciple asks

upāsakā pucchanti
The lay disciples ask

 

puriso evaṃ vadati
The man speaks thus

purisā evaṃ vadanti
The men speak thus

 Verbs

stem
verb
meaning
vis (to enter) (with prefix (p)pa)pavisatihe enters
phusphusatihe touches, reaches, attains
isicchatihe wishes, he desires
gamgacchatihe goes
gam(with prefix ā)āgacchatihe comes
(ṭ)ṭhātiṭṭhatihe stands, remains, stays
dadāti or detihe gives
(with prefix (p)pa)pajahatihe gives up, renounce
(v) vaj (to go) (with prefix (p)pa)pabbajatihe goes forth, sent away
(j) jhejhāyatihe meditates, burns
i etihe goes, come
i (with prefix upa)upetihe goes to

Accusative Case

 The "patient" (kamma) which undergoes the action of an active verb (the "direct object") is expressed by the "accusative " (dutiyā, upayoga) case ending.  Masculines in a have the accusative singular inflection aṃ.  e.g.:

purisaṃ bandhati - "he binds the man"

samaṇaṃ vadati - "he says to the ascetic"

The accusative case is also used to express the goal of motion:

gāma pavisati - "he enters the village "

 The accusative case may likewise express the (extent of) space traversed:

magga paipajjati - "he follows the road"
(paipajjati is a third conjugation verb)

 The accusative is used for an attribute of another accusative:

khattiyo brahmaa mahāmatta passati - "the warrior sees the priest who is the minister "

This type of construction includes such sentences as "he declares (that) time (is) the cause", where kālo ("time") and paccayo ("condition", "cause") will both be in the accusative (kāla paccayaṃ …).

Some verbs take two patients (dvikammaka). These include verbs meaning to call, tell, or ask (someone something), and to take or bring (something somewhere):

samaṅaṃ atthaṃ pucchāmi -
"I ask the philosopher the meaning (attho)"

The accusative is used to express the pure duration of time …

aḍḍhamāsa āgacchati - "he comes after a fortnight "

eka samaya … – "one time …", "once …"
(beginning a narrative)

The accusative singular neuter form of some adjectives is used as an "adverb":

rassa ("short" - adjective in -a) > rassa passasāmi, "I breathe out shortly", i.e. expel a short breath

The accusative plural inflection of masculines in a is e. e.g. upāsake passati -  "he sees the lay disciples".

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Verbs which can take a patient are called "transitive" (sakammaka). Verbs which cannot take a patient are called "intransitive" (akammaka).

Vocabulary

Nouns inflected like loko:

noun
meaning
aggotop
atthogoal, prosperity, wealth, welfare, purpose, meaning, subject-matter
dhammo(true, natural) doctrine, natural element, natural substance, natural phenomenon
pattobowl
pamādoheedless, negligence, pastime
piṇḍoalms
bhavoexistence, good fortune
vādodoctrine, debate, argument, statement
sattobeing, creature
saddonoise, report
sugatowell-gone (title of the Buddha)

EXERCISE 2

The answers are given in Part 3

Translate into English

sugato dhammaṃ bhāsati

upāsako pattaṃ āharati

manussā bhavaṃ icchanti

gāmaṃ gacchāma

samaṇo āgacchati

tathāgato sugato hoti

brāhmaṇo purise pucchati

devā cavanti

vādaṃ vadanti

puttā pabbajanti

satto tiṭṭhati

samaṇe atthaṃ pucchanti

Translate into Pali

They go to the minister

The men see the ministers

The god, who is not a human being, approaches the "thus gone"

You ask the philosopher (about) the doctrine

We ask the philosopher who is "well gone"

The "thus-gone" gives up negligence

The lay disciples enter the village

The ascetics meditate

The substance remains

He reaches the top

We ask the philosopher the meaning

He gives alms