Part 18 - Lesson #13
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Nouns (including participles, adjectives, and pronouns) are very frequently combined in compounds (samāsa).
In a compound only the last noun is inflected, those prefixed to it being usually in their stern form.
The compound functions grammatically in a sentence as if it were a single word, but the meaning is often simply the combination of the meanings of the words forming it - just as if they were separate words in a sentence.
"Madhouse" ... means any "house for the mad" (or any place resembling one).
In the class known as tappurisa (no English equivalents have been invented for the names of compounds, so we use the Pali names)
... the prior member is associated with the posterior by a direct relation. The whole compound functions grammatically as a noun.
The English example "madhouse" illustrates this: in Pali the relation "for the mad" might be expressed by the dative case (purpose), which would be the case in which the prior word would appear if there were no compounding.
In "grasshopper" the relation "in the grass" would be expressed by the locative case (Lesson 16). In Pali any case-relation may occur in a tappurisa, that of the genitive being the most frequent as it is the usual case to express a relation between two nouns. The "genitive" relation may be very general or vague; other cases may express very specific relations, including those to an action (when the second noun is more or less verbal).
"an assembly of priests ("priest-assembly")
"son of a king" ("kingson"), "prince" (stems in an lose the n in compounds)
Participles likewise occur as the final members of tappurisas, and it is in these tappurisas that the other case relations are most often found, such as the accusative relation when the first member is the patient ("direct object") of the participle.
Compounds are very freely formed in Pali (much more freely than in English, except perhaps in some modern styles which many English speakers would regard as jargon). They are not restricted to two members, compounds of three or more members, variously related, being quite common. Thus:
"hall of the house with a gable (kūṭo)".
A special conjugation of verbs has the meaning to cause someone or something else to do the action of the root, to have something done, and is called the "causative" (kārita).
There is, a distinctive causative suffix (ā)p which is sometimes added to roots. Roots conjugated in any conjugation for the ordinary present indicative may appear in causative meanings with the stem in e or a "fuller" form aya (or pe, āpe, paya, āpaya).
The meaning may be the straightforward causative one or a more specialised and idiomatic one.
Thus from vac, "to speak", we have the causative vāceti, ("he makes speak"), "he reads aloud", "he recites",
whilst from vad, "to say", we have the causative vādeti ("he makes say"), "he plays (a musical instrument)."
Sometimes it is not easy to decide whether to class a verb as an independent seventh conjugation root or as the causative form of some other verb of perhaps widely divergent meaning. There is a certain amount of disagreement among grammarians over the proper classification (e.g. of vādeti).
With (ā)p we have from chid chedāpayati ("he causes to cut"); from (ṭ)ṭhā ṭhapayati, in which the root vowel (first a) is usually shortened (as opposed to most causatives) and which often has the meaning "he leaves aside", "he excepts", instead of the more literal meaning "makes stand", "erects".
Besides the possibility of a "double" formation with (ā)p alongside a causative form in e (which may have double meaning as well as double form), "triple" forms are sometimes made by adding (a)p twice, thus from ruh "grow", we have a causative form (with elision of h) ropeti, "he plants" (causes to grow), and another causative form ropāpeti, meaning "he causes to cause to grow", "he has planted".
As with ordinary verbs, the agent of a causative verb (hetukattar) goes in the nominative case. The person or "instrument" through whom the action is performed goes usually in the accusative (the instrumental may be used instead, on account of the sense of "instrument"); thus a causative verb may take one patient more than the equivalent ordinary verb: the causative of an intransitive verb may take one patient (the verb may be said to "become transitive"), the causative of a transitive verb may take two patients, the causative of a verb which ordinarily takes two accusatives may take three patients.
"To be" is intransitive and takes no patient; "to cause to be" (i.e. to develop, etc., as "to develop 1 the mind") takes one.
"To enter" may take one patient (enter 1 a house); "to cause to enter" may take two (cause to enter 1 a man 2 a house).
"To take", "to lead", etc., may take two patients (take 1 to a village 2 a goat); in theory (in practice the extravagance seems to be avoided) "to cause to take" may take three (cause to take 1 (by) a man 2 to a village 3 a goat: puriso (agent) 1 purisaṃ 2 gāmaṃ 3 ajaṃ nāyeti, or puriso purisena gāmaṃ ajaṃ nāyeti with instrumental).
The causative conjugation includes the various tenses and participles, formed from causative stems as from seventh conjugation stems.
Present causative of bhū:
|kapp ((VII): kappeti, he arranges, he puts in order, he organises)||kappāpeti||he causes to be got ready, he has put in order, he has organised|
|kar||kāreti||he causes to work, to make, (of kings) he governs, he rules (causes the kingdom to function)|
|kar||kārāpeti||he causes to make, he has built|
|chid||chedāpeti||he causes to cut|
|jan||janeti||he causes to be born, he produces|
|(j)jhe||jhāpeti||he causes to burn, he sets fire to|
|he causes to stand, he erects, he makes stand up, he causes to remain, he excepts|
|ni-pat||nipāteti||he causes to fall down, he drops, he puts down|
|pā||pāyeti||he causes to drink|
|bhū||bhāveti||he causes to be, he develops|
|ā-mant||āmantāpeti||he causes to be addressed, he has invited|
|muc||muñcāpeti||he causes to be free, he sets free|
|(p)paṭi-yat (to prepare)||paṭiyadāpeti||he causes to be prepared (irregular change of t > d)
|yā||yāpeti||he causes to go, he keeps going|
|yuj ((VII): yojeti)||yojāpeti||he causes to be yoked (carriage)|
|ā-ruc||ārocāpeti||he causes to be announced|
|ruh||ropeti||he causes to grow, he plants|
|ruh||ropāpeti||he causes to cause to grow, he has planted|
|ā-ruh (climb, mount)||āropeti||he causes to mount, he puts on top of, he shows, he shows up, he disproves|
|(p)pa-vatt||pavatteti||he causes to go, he sets going|
|ni(r)-vā||nibbāpeti||he causes to be extinct, he extinguishes (e.g. fire)|
|(p)pa-vid (vid (I): "know", but the primary present system is not used)||pavedeti||he makes known|
|(p)pa-vis||paveseti||he causes to enter, he brings in|
|(p)pa-(v)vaj||pabbājeti||he causes to go forth, he banishes (he has banished)|
|ni-sīd||nisīdāpeti||he causes to sit down|
|(s)su||sāveti||he causes to hear|
|pari-sudh (III) (to become pure/clean)||parisodheti||he causes to become pure|
Other tenses of the causative:
Aorist: kārāpesi - ṭhapesuṃ - ārocāpesi, ārocāpesuṃ - ropāpesi - āropesuṃ
Future: jhapessati - bhāvessati
Present: kārento, kārayato (genitive) - chedāpento, chedāpayato (genitive) - dāpento - pācento (pac = cook, torment), pācayato (genitive) - yojāpento
Past: kappita - kārita, kārāpita - bhāvita - pavattita - pavedita (usually in ita, as with the seventh conjugation)
Gerund: kārāpetvā - āmantāpetvā - paṭiyādāpeṭvā - yojāpetvā - āropetvā - pavesetvā
Despite the mechanical appearance of the causative in theory, as a kind of tense of the ordinary verb, in practice the meaning and usage of causative verbs is highly idiomatic and each one requires careful attention.
|ā-kuṭ (VII)||ākoṭeti||he strikes|
|gaves (I)||gavesati||he looks for, he searches|
|(p)pa-ikkh (I)||pekkhati||for he looks on, he watches|
|bhaj (I)||bhajati||he resorts to|
|(k)khandho||group, collection, mass|
|bhedo||division, splitting up|
|khādaniyaṃ||foods, dishes (collective singular)|
|mūlaṃ||root, base, capital (money)|
|samma (voc.)||(my) dear! (familiar address: only the vocative is used)
|abbhokāsa||open, free, out of doors, open air|
|ariya||excellent, exalted, noble|
|uttāna||stretched out, lying down|
|paṇīta||excellent, delightful, delicious|
|vivitta (vi-vic)||separated, isolated|
|ayoniso||unmethodically, haphazardly, erratically, inconsequentially, unscientifically|
|kacci||perhaps?, did?, I doubt whether?, I hope?, aren't you? (with na)|
|dāni||now (enclitic: cannot stand at beginning of sentence)|
|passena||on its side (instrumental of passo, side, used adverbially)|
|yāva||as far as, up to, as much, to what extent|
The answers are given in Part 19
Passage for reading
te taṃ saṅkhaṃ uttānaṃ nipātesuṃ: vadehi bho saṅkha, vadehi bho saṅkhā ti. n'eva so saṅkho saddaṃ akāsi. te taṃ saṅkhaṃ passena nipātesuṃ … uddhaṃ ṭhapesuṃ … daṇdena ākoṭesuṃ … sandhuniṃsu1: vadehi bho saṅkha, vadehi bho saṅkhā ti. n'eva so saṅkho saddaṃ akāsi. atha kho tassa saṅkhadhamassa etad ahosi: yāva bālā. ime paccantajā manussā. kathaṃ hi nāma ayoniso saṅkhasaddaṃ gavesissantī ti. tesam pekkhamānānaṃ2 saṅkhaṃ gahetvā tikkhattuṃ saṅkhaṃ upaḷāsitvā saṅkhaṃ ādāya pakkāmi.
1 Aorist of saṃ-dhū (V: Lesson 15), "to shake."
2 Genitive absolute, cf. Lesson 10.
Translate into English
brāhmaṇo mante vācesi
so taṃ cittaṃ bhāveti
na taṃ (2nd. person) deva paccatthikānaṃ demi
rājā kumārassa (dative) pāsāde kārāpesi
so iminā ca ariyena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato iminā ariyena indriyasaṃvarena samannāgato … vivittaṃ senāsanaṃ bhajati: araññaṃ rukkhamūlaṃ, pabbataṃ, ... abbhokāsaṃ palālapuñjaṃ
idha tathāgatena anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavattitaṃ
ye mālaṃ āropessanti, tesaṃ taṃ bhavissati sukhāya
tvaṃ pana samma Jīvaka kiṃ tuṇhī
kacci maṃ samma Jīvaka na paccatthikānaṃ desi
Translate into Pali, using compounds where indicated by hyphens:
This is the cessation-of-unhappiness.
(It is) now the time-for-extinction of the fortunate one.
Cunda the son-of-a-smith, having had delicious dishes prepared, had the time announced to the fortunate one: "(it is) time, sir,3 the meal (is) ready"4.
The lion, king-of-the-beasts, went out.
There are (atthi: the singular verb may be used for the plural also in this sense) other profound, delightful, doctrines which the "thus-gone" makes known.
He develops that thought.
The king, having had the priests invited, said this: "let the priests see the boy".
The king, having made the boy sit down, instructs (him).
The priest had a new house built to the east (instrumental or accusative) of the city.
Recite the prayers! (plural)
I set free the goats.
3 Use the form of address to a monk.
4 Invert the order of the last two words (= emphasis or exclamation).