Part 24 - Exercise 16 Answers

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Exercise 16 - Answers

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Passage 1

As a passage ...

te yen' aññataraṃ gāmapadaṃ ten' upasaṃkamiṃsu. tatth' addasaṃsu pahūtaṃ khomaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ. disvā. pe. pahūtaṃ khomasuttaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ. disvā. pe. (a whole range of commodities of increasing value is enumerated) pe. pahūtaṃ suvaṇṇaṃ chaḍḍiṭaṃ. disvā sahāyako sahāyakaṃ āmantesi: yassa kho samma atthāya iccheyyāma sāṅaṃ vā sāṇasuttaṃ vā ... sīsaṃ vā sajjhuṃ vā, idaṃ pahūtaṃ suvaṇṇaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ. tena hi samma tvañ ca sāṇabhāraṃ chaḍḍehi, ahañ ca sajjhubhāraṃ chaḍḍessāmi. ubho suvaṇṇabhāraṃ ādāya gamissāmā ti. ayaṃ kho me samma sāṇabhāro durābhato ca susannaddho ca. alam me; tvaṃ pajānāhi ti ...

They approached a certain site of a village. There they saw much abandoned flax. Having seen (it) etc. much abandoned flax-thread. Having seen (it) etc. etc. much abandoned gold. Having seen (it) the friend addressed the friend: "For which purpose, my dear, we would desire hemp, hemp-thread ... lead, or silver, (for that purpose) here is much abandoned gold. Now, my dear, you throw away the load of hemp, and I will throw away the load of silver. We both, having taken a load of gold, will go." "This load of hemp, my dear, has been carried with difficulty and has been well tied up by me. It is enough for me, you understand! ...

For notes on this passage, see passage for reading exercise 14 and 15.

... or as separate parts ...

te yen' aññataraṃ gāmapadaṃ ten' upasaṃkamiṃsu.

They approached a certain site of a village.

tatth' addasaṃsu pahūtaṃ khomaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ.

There they saw much abandoned flax.

disvā. pe. pahūtaṃ khomasuttaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ. disvā. pe. (a whole range of commodities of increasing value is enumerated) pe.

Having seen (it) etc. much abandoned flax-thread. Having seen (it) etc. etc.

pahūtaṃ suvaṇṇaṃ chaḍḍiṭaṃ.

much abandoned gold.

disvā sahāyako sahāyakaṃ āmantesi:

Having seen (it) the friend addressed the friend:

yassa kho samma atthāya iccheyyāma sāṅaṃ vā sāṇasuttaṃ vā ... sīsaṃ vā sajjhuṃ vā, idaṃ pahūtaṃ suvaṇṇaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ.

"For which purpose, my dear, we would desire hemp, hemp-thread ... lead, or silver, (for that purpose) here is much abandoned gold.

tena hi samma tvañ ca sāṇabhāraṃ chaḍḍehi, ahañ ca sajjhubhāraṃ chaḍḍessāmi.

Now, my dear, you throw away the load of hemp, and I will throw away the load of silver.

ubho suvaṇṇabhāraṃ ādāya gamissāmā ti.

We both, having taken a load of gold, will go."

ayaṃ kho me samma sāṇabhāro durābhato ca susannaddho ca. alam me; tvaṃ pajānāhi ti ...

"This load of hemp, my dear, has been carried with difficulty and has been well tied up by me. It is enough for me, you understand! ...

Passage 2

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As a passage ...

bhūtapubbaṃ aññataro sūkaraposako puriso sakamhā gāmā aññaṃ gāmaṃ agamāsi. tatth' addasā pahūtaṃ sukkhagūthaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ. disvān'1 assa etad ahosi: ayaṃ me bahuko sukkhagūtho chaḍḍito, mamañ ca sūkarabhattaṃ. yan nūnāhaṃ ito sukkhagūthaṃ hareyyan ti. so uttarāsaṅgaṃ pattharitvā pahūtaṃ sukkhagūthaṃ āharitvā bhaṇḍikaṃ bandhitvā sīse ubbāhetvā2 agamāsi. tassa antarā magge mahā akālamegho pāvassi. so uggharantaṃ paggharantaṃ yāva agganakhā gūthena makkhito gūthabhāraṃ ādāya agamāsi. tam enaṃ3 manussā disvā evam āhaṃsu4: kacci no tvaṃ bhaṇe ummatto, kacci veceto, kathaṃ hi nāma uggharantaṃ paggharantaṃ yāva, agganakhā gūthena makkhito gūthabhāraṃ harissasī ti. tumhe kho ettha bhaṇe ummattā tumhe vecetā tathā hi pana me sūkarabhattan ti.

Once upon a time, a certain pig-breeder man went from his own village to another village. There he saw much abandoned dry dung. Having seen (it), he thought this: "This is much abandoned dry dung for me, and a meal for my pigs. What now if I were to carry the dry dung from here?" He, having spread out the cloak, having fetched much dry dung, having bound a bundle, having lifted (it) up on the head, went. Whilst on his way, a great untimely cloud rained heavily. He went, smeared with dung as far as the tip of the nail, having taken the oozing (and) dripping load of dung. Then people having seen him (enaṃ) said this: "I say, aren't you mad! - (or) perhaps daft? For how can you, smeared with dung as far as the tip of the nail, carry an oozing (and) dripping load of dung?" "In this case (ettha), I say, you are mad, you are daft, for truly (tathā hi pana) it is a meal for my pigs!"

... or as separate parts ...

bhūtapubbaṃ aññataro sūkaraposako puriso sakamhā gāmā aññaṃ gāmaṃ agamāsi.

Once upon a time, a certain pig-breeder man went from his own village to another village.

Sūkaraposako = sūkara ('pig') + posako ('breeder'). This compound is structured like a genitive tappurisa compound ('breeder of pigs') but it is in fact a bahubbīhi compound acting like an adjective to puriso, see Warder p.137.

(went) Agamāsi, aorist.

(own village) Sakamhā gāmā, ablative.

tatth' addasā pahūtaṃ sukkhagūthaṃ chaḍḍitaṃ.

There he saw much abandoned dry dung.

(dry dung) Sukkhagūthaṃ = sukkha ('dry') + gūthaṃ ('dung'), kammadhāraya compound, i.e., sukkha is an adjective qualifying gūthaṃ. See Warder p.108.

disvān'1 assa etad ahosi:

Having seen (it), he thought this:

Again the standard Pali idiom for thinking, see Warder p.56.

ayaṃ me bahuko sukkhagūtho chaḍḍito, mamañ ca sūkarabhattaṃ.

"This is much abandoned dry dung for me, and a meal for my pigs.

Me, dative. It can also be read as genitive.

Mamañ-ca sūkarabhattaṃ. Sūkarabhattaṃ = sūkara + bhattaṃ ('meal') is a tappurisa compound 'meal for the pigs'. Note how 'my', mamañ, has to be inserted into the middle of the compound for the expression to be clear in English.

yan nūnāhaṃ ito sukkhagūthaṃ hareyyan ti.

What now if I were to carry the dry dung from here?"

(What now if I) Yan nūnāhaṃ = yan (= yaṃ) nūna ahaṃ. For yan nūna, see Warder p.94.

(from here) Ito, ablative.

so uttarāsaṅgaṃ pattharitvā pahūtaṃ sukkhagūthaṃ āharitvā bhaṇḍikaṃ bandhitvā sīse ubbāhetvā2 agamāsi.

He, having spread out the cloak, having fetched much dry dung, having bound a bundle, having lifted (it) up on the head, went.

(cloak) Uttarāsaṅgo = uttara ('upper') + āsaṅgo ('robe'), a kammadhāraya compound where uttara is an adjective to āsaṅgo, see Warder p.108.

(lifted (it) up) Ubbāhetvā, see DP.

The initial so, 'he', is here the agent of a series of five verbs.

tassa antarā magge mahā akālamegho pāvassi.

Whilst on his way, a great untimely cloud rained heavily.

Tassa antarā magge. Antarā takes the locative (see Pali English Dictionary by Rhys Davids & Stede) and antarā magge is a common expression meaning 'on the way' or 'whilst on the way' (see Dictionary of Pali by Margaret Cone). The exact function of the genitive (tassa) eludes me, but the given translation is at least very convenient! Alternatively it may be related to the verb pāvassi.

(a great) Mahā, nominative singular.

Akālamegho = akāla ('untimely') + megho ('cloud'), a kammadhāraya compound where akāla is an adjective to megha, see Warder p.108.

(rained heavily) Pāvassi, aorist of pavassati.

so uggharantaṃ paggharantaṃ yāva agganakhā gūthena makkhito gūthabhāraṃ ādāya agamāsi.

He went, smeared with dung as far as the tip of the nail, having taken the oozing (and) dripping load of dung.

(He went) Agamāsi, aorist

Makkhito, agrees with so, i.e., he was smeared.

Agganakhā seems to be a tappurisa compound with an idiomatic reversal of the two members: for 'tip of the nail' one would normally expect nakhagga. The compound as a whole is in the ablative case (thus ending in ā) as required by yāva, see Warder p.91.

(oozing (and) dripping) Two present participles qualifying 'load of dung'. Note the case, number, and gender agreement.

tam enaṃ3 manussā disvā evam āhaṃsu4:

Then people having seen him (enaṃ) said this:

(Then) Taṃ, is either an indeclinable (as I have read it) or it serves to emphasise enaṃ, 'that him', parallel to so'haṃ (= so ahaṃ), see Warder p.29.

(this) Evaṃ. Again, when referring to something which immediately follows, 'this' seems a suitable translation, see DP.

kacci no tvaṃ bhaṇe ummatto, kacci veceto,

"I say, aren't you mad! - (or) perhaps daft?

(aren't) Kacci no. The negative particle no is an emphatic form of na.

(mad) Ummatto (and then veceto) agree with tvaṃ, all nominative singular.

(perhaps) Kacci. Note that I have translated kacci differently on the two occasions.

kathaṃ hi nāma uggharantaṃ paggharantaṃ yāva, agganakhā gūthena makkhito gūthabhāraṃ harissasī ti.

For how can you, smeared with dung as far as the tip of the nail, carry an oozing (and) dripping load of dung?"

(smeared) Makkhito now agrees with 'you', the agent of harissasi.

Kathaṃ hi nāma … harissasi. Kathaṃ hi nāma takes the future (see Warder p.55), but the overall sense is indignation/disapproval. Thus the future tense is lost on translation.

tumhe kho ettha bhaṇe ummattā tumhe vecetā tathā hi pana me sūkarabhattan ti.

"In this case (ettha), I say, you are mad, you are daft, for truly (tathā hi pana) it is a meal for my pigs!"


1 disvāna is an archaic form of disvā used mostly in verse; sometimes the form disvān' is used in prose, when a vowel follows.

2 Causative in same meaning as simple verb; the double form of causative of this verb is used in the meaning "to have someone carry off".

3 enaṃ = "him" - accusative singular masculine of a pronoun of the 3rd person, used only in accusative as enclitic form.

4 āhaṃsu = "they said" - Lesson 21.

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Bhagavā Rājagahe viharati

The Blessed One was dwelling in Rājagaha.

(The Blessed One was dwelling) This is a common opening of suttas. It is another example of the present tense (viharati) being used as the 'historic present', see Warder p.12.

Rājagahe, locative.

ime candimasuriyā parasmiṃ loke na imasmiṃ

These, the moon and the sun, are in another world, not in this (world).

(moon and the sun) A dvanda compound. Note that in this case the ending of the compound is plural (nominative), reflecting the fact that the compound contains two items. Ime, which qualifies and agrees with candimasuriyā, is therefore also plural. The sun and the moon were considered to be devas, beings (or gods) which exist in another world.

Again note how the verb 'to be' is missing in the Pali and needs to be supplied on translation. The same is true of the next sentence.

kismiṃ vo viggaho, kismiṃ vivādo

With reference to what is your quarrel, with reference to what is the dispute?

(to what) Kismiṃ, locative of reference, (from kiṃ), see Warder p.102.

(your) Vo, genitive case.

evaṃ vutte aññataro rājāmacco rājānaṃ etad avoca

When this had been said, a certain minister of the King said this to the King.

(When this had been said) Evaṃ vutte is usually regarded as a locative absolute even though there is no pronoun as is normally required in such expressions, see Warder p.103. The pronoun in this case may be regarded as 'implied' by the participle.

(minister of the King) Rājāmacco = rājā + amacco ('minister'), genitive tappurisa compound.

na dāni tena ciraṃ jīvitabbaṃ bhavissati

By him (tena) now (dāni) not long it will be lived.

Jīvitabbaṃ ('to be lived') + bhavissati ('it will be') = 'it will be lived'. This is a slightly complicated example of the future passive participle + the verb 'to be' forming a 'periphrastic' construction, see Warder pp.107 and 236.


so bhotā raññā vippaṭisāro na karaṇīyo

By the honourable King that regret should not be done.

Karanīyo, 'should be done', future passive participle, see Warder p.106. An idiom expressing that the King need not feel remorse.

na kho pan' etaṃ Poṭṭhapāda evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ

But (pana), Potthapāda, this (etaṃ) should not be seen thus.

Or 'should not be regarded (thus)'. Daṭṭhabbaṃ, future passive participle, see Warder p.105.

kiñ cid eva karaṇīyaṃ uppajji

Some business (karaṇīyaṃ) or other arose.

(business) Karaṇīyaṃ, again a future passive participle but here used as a neuter noun, see Warder p.106.

Kiñ cid eva, 'some … or other', see DP.

(arose) Uppajji is the aorist of uppajjati. A common alternative aorist form of uppajjati is udapādi.

idaṃ sevitabbaṃ, idaṃ na sevitabbaṃ

This is to be pursued, this is not to be pursued.

Referring to right practices and wrong practices, i.e. according to the Buddha's teachings.

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As a passage ...

If (ce) now (va kho pana) I (put first) were to ask (optative) the philosopher Gotama a question, if (ce) in that connection the philosopher Gotama were to ask me thus: "Priest,1 this question, now (ca), should not be asked (future passive participle) thus, but (nāma) thus, priest, this question should be asked", this assembly would despise me for that (tena - place at beginning of clause): "The priest Soṇadaṇḍa is a fool (put first), unintelligent, he could (sak(k), aorist) not ask (pucchituṃ - infinitive of pucch, Lesson 19; place at end of clause) the philosopher Gotama a question consequently (precedes 'question')."

If now (as before) the philosopher Gotama were to ask me (put first) a question, and I were not to satisfy (optative) (his: omit) mind (accusative) with (my) explanation of his question, if in that connection the philosopher Gotama were to say to me (accusative) thus: "Priest, this question, now, should not be explained thus, but thus, priest, this question should be explained," this assembly would despise me for that: "The priest Soṇadaṇḍa is a fool, unintelligent, he couldn't satisfy (ārādhetuṃ - infinitive) (his) mind with (his) explanation of the philosopher Gotama's question."


Ahaṃ ce va kho pana samaṇaṃ Gotamaṃ pañhaṃ puccheyyaṃ, tatra ce maṃ samaṇo Gotamo evaṃ vadeyya: "Na c'esa brāhmaṇa pañho evaṃ pucchitabbo, evaṃ nām'esa brāhmaṇa pañho pucchitabbo" ti, tena maṃ ayaṃ parisā paribhaveyya: "Bālo Soṇadaṇḍo brāhmaṇo avyatto, nāsakkhi samaṇaṃ Gotamaṃ yoniso pañhaṃ pucchitun" ti.

Maṃ ce va kho pana samaṇo Gotamo pañhaṃ puccheyya, tassa cāham pañhassa veyyākaraṇena cittaṃ na ārādheyyaṃ. Tatra ce maṃ Samaṇo Gotamo evaṃ vadeyya: "Na c'esa brāhmaṇa pañho evaṃ vyākātabbo, evaṃ nām'esa brāhmaṇa pañhvyākātabbo" ti, tena maṃ ayaṃ parisā paribhaveyya: "Bālo Soṇadaṇḍo brāhmaṇo avyatto, nāsakkhi samaṇassa Gotamassa pañhassa veyyākaraṇena cittaṃ ārādhetun" ti.

... or as separate parts ...

If (ce) now (va kho pana) I (put first) were to ask (optative) the philosopher Gotama a question,

Ahaṃ ce va kho pana samaṇaṃ Gotamaṃ pañhaṃ puccheyyaṃ,

if (ce) in that connection the philosopher Gotama were to ask me thus:

tatra ce maṃ samaṇo Gotamo evaṃ vadeyya:

"Priest,1 this question, now (ca), should not be asked (future passive participle) thus, but (nāma) thus, priest, this question should be asked",

"Na c'esa brāhmaṇa pañho evaṃ pucchitabbo, evaṃ nām'esa brāhmaṇa pañho pucchitabbo" ti,

this assembly would despise me for that (tena - place at beginning of clause):

tena maṃ ayaṃ parisā paribhaveyya:

"The priest Soṇadaṇḍa is a fool (put first), unintelligent, he could (sak(k), aorist) not ask (pucchituṃ - infinitive of pucch, Lesson 19; place at end of clause) the philosopher Gotama a question consequently (precedes 'question')."

"Bālo Soṇadaṇḍo brāhmaṇo avyatto, nāsakkhi samaṇaṃ Gotamaṃ yoniso pañhaṃ pucchitun" ti.


If now (as before) the philosopher Gotama were to ask me (put first) a question,

Maṃ ce va kho pana samaṇo Gotamo pañhaṃ puccheyya,

and I were not to satisfy (optative) (his: omit) mind (accusative) with (my) explanation of his question,

tassa cāham pañhassa veyyākaraṇena cittaṃ na ārādheyyaṃ.

if in that connection the philosopher Gotama were to say to me (accusative) thus:

Tatra ce maṃ Samaṇo Gotamo evaṃ vadeyya:

"Priest, this question, now, should not be explained thus,

"Na c'esa brāhmaṇa pañho evaṃ vyākātabbo,

but thus, priest, this question should be explained,"

evaṃ nām'esa brāhmaṇa pañhvyākātabbo" ti,

this assembly would despise me for that:

tena maṃ ayaṃ parisā paribhaveyya:

"The priest Soṇadaṇḍa is a fool, unintelligent,

"Bālo Soṇadaṇḍo brāhmaṇo avyatto,

he couldn't satisfy (ārādhetuṃ - infinitive) (his) mind with (his) explanation of the philosopher Gotama's question."

nāsakkhi samaṇassa Gotamassa pañhassa veyyākaraṇena cittaṃ ārādhetun" ti.

 

=== This is the end of the course. ===

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