Part 3 - Exercise 2 Answers and Lesson #3

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Exercise 2 - Answers

Translate into English

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sugato dhammaṃ bhāsati

The well-gone speaks the doctrine

upāsako pattaṃ āharati

The lay disciple brings the bowl

manussā bhavaṃ icchanti

Human beings desire existence

gāmaṃ gacchāma

We go to the village

samaṇo āgacchati

The philosopher is coming

tathāgato sugato hoti

The thus-gone is well-gone

brāhmaṇo purise pucchati

The priest asks the men

devā cavanti

Gods die

vādaṃ vadanti

They speak (state) an argument

puttā pabbajanti

The sons go forth

satto tiṭṭhati

The being stays

samaṇe atthaṃ pucchanti

They ask the philosophers the meaning

Translate into Pali

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They go to the minister

mahāmattaṃ gacchanti
yena mahāmatto tena upasaṃkamanti
(mahāmattaṃ upasaṃkamanti)

The men see the ministers

purisā mahāmatte passanti

The god, who is not a human being, approaches the thus-gone

devo amanusso yena tathāgato tena upasaṃkamati
(devo amanusso tathāgataṃ upasaṃkamati)

You ask the philosopher (about) the doctrine

samaṇaṃ dhammaṃ pucchasi

We ask the philosopher who is well gone

samaṇaṃ sugataṃ pucchāma

The thus-gone gives up negligence

tathāgato pamādaṃ pajahati

The lay disciples enter the village

upāsakā gāmaṃ pavisanti

The ascetics meditate

samaṇā jhāyanti

The substance remains

kāyo tiṭṭhati

He reaches the top

aggaṃ phusati

We ask the philosopher the meaning

samaṇaṃ atthaṃ pucchāma

He gives alms

piṇḍaṃ deti

Lesson 3

Declension of bhagavant, brahman, and rājan

(See pdf version of the “Pali Noun Declension table”)

A few masculine nouns in stems other than a are of common occurrence. The usual title for the Buddha in Pali texts has the stem form bhagavant, meaning "the fortunate", "the bountiful", "the Master" (translations vary: "the blessed one", "the exalted one", etc.). The inflections in the nominative and accusative are as follows:

 
singular
plural
nominative
bhagavā
bhagavanto1
accusative bhagavantaṃ

1N.B. except in the masculine declension in a and in the present participle the accusative plural is always the same as the nominative.

The noun brahman, meaning "God" (the supreme being and creator in the Brahmanical religion of the hereditary priesthood of India), is inflected in the nominative and accusative singular as follows:

 
singular
plural
nominative
brahmā
brahmāno
accusative brahmānaṃ

The noun rājan,"king", is similarly inflected in these cases.

 More Verbs

stem
verb
meaning
kathkathetihe relates, he tells
kamkāmetihe loves
chaḍḍchaḍḍetihe throws away, he abandons
ñap (with prefix (p)pa)paññāpetihe prepares, he declares
dhardhāretihe holds, he wears, he has, he accepts (with two patients /accusatives: x as y), he remembers
mantmantetihe takes counsel, he discusses (confidentially)
mant (with prefix ā)āmantetihe addresses
vañcvañcetihe deceives
vad (to speak) (with prefix abhi), meaning "towards", "about")abhivādetihe salutes, he greets, he takes leave
vās (to dress) (with prefix ni)nivāsetihe dresses
vid (to feel) (with prefix (p)paṭi), meaning "towards", "back", and saṃ)paṭisaṃvedetihe feels, he experiences (something to be something)
veṭh (to twist, to wrap) (with the prefix ni(r), meaning "out")nibbeṭhetihe untwists, he unravels, he explains, he rebuts

Vocabulary

 Masculine nouns in a:

noun
meaning
kālotime, opportunity, proper time (appropriate time)
paccayocondition, cause
bhāroburden, load
lābhogain
vipākoresult
vihārolife, way of life, dwelling (also used figuratively of a mental state, e.g., of happiness)
hatthohand

EXERCISE 3

The answers are given in Part 4

Translate into English

bhagavā dhammaṃ deseti

rājānaṃ vañcesi

upāsakaṃ brāhmānaṃ dhāreti

rājā purise āmanteti

brāhmaṇo brahmānaṃ passati

rājā khattiyo mahāmattaṃ pucchati

brāhmaṇā rājānaṃ vadanti

puriso bhāraṃ chaḍḍeti

evaṃ kathenti

kālaṃ paccayaṃ paññāpenti

Translate into Pali

The lay disciples salute the fortunate one

He binds the hands

I experience the result

The king addresses the priest

The priest who is minister speaks thus to the fortunate one

Existence (is) the condition

He remembers the meaning

The fortunate one dresses

The gods discuss the matter

The fortunate one asks the king

He enters the dwelling

You rebut the argument

The king takes counsel

He renounces gain