Part 7 - Exercise 6 Answers and Lesson #7

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Exercise 6 - Answers

Translate into English

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As a passage ...

ehi tvaṃ purisa. yena Jotipālo māṇavo ten'1 upasaṃkama. Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ evaṃ vadehi … evaṃ2 devā ti … so puriso Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ etad avoca: bhavam3 atthu bhavantaṃ Jotipālaṃ4 māṇavaṃ. rājā Disampati bhavantaṃ Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ āmanteti … Jotipālo māṇavo yena rājā Disampati ten' upasaṃkami. Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ rājā Disampati etad avoca. anusāsatu bhavaṃ Jotipālo māṇavo … te atthe anusāsati.

You must go, (my) man. Go to where the young priest Jotipala is. Speak thus to the young priest Jotipāla … 'Yes, O King.' … That man said this to the young priest Jotipāla: 'May there be good fortune to his honour the young priest Jotipāla. King Disampati addresses his honour the young priest Jotipāla …' The young priest Jotipāla went to where King Disampati was. King Disampati said this to the young priest Jotipāla. Let the honourable young priest Jotipāla advise … He advises those purposes (objectives).

... or as separate parts ...

ehi tvaṃ purisa.

You must go, (my) man.

yena Jotipālo māṇavo ten'1 upasaṃkama.

Go to where the young priest Jotipala is.

Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ evaṃ vadehi …

Speak thus to the young priest Jotipāla …

evaṃ2 devā ti …

'Yes, O King.' …

so puriso Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ etad avoca:

That man said this to the young priest Jotipāla:

bhavam3 atthu bhavantaṃ Jotipālaṃ4 māṇavaṃ.

'May there be good fortune to his honour the young priest Jotipāla.

rājā Disampati bhavantaṃ Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ āmanteti …

King Disampati addresses his honour the young priest Jotipāla …'

Jotipālo māṇavo yena rājā Disampati ten' upasaṃkami.

The young priest Jotipāla went to where King Disampati was.

Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ rājā Disampati etad avoca.

King Disampati said this to the young priest Jotipāla.

anusāsatu bhavaṃ Jotipālo māṇavo …

Let the honourable young priest Jotipāla advise …

te atthe anusāsati.

He advises those purposes (objectives).

1 Elision of final a before another vowel.
2 evaṃ with a vocative as here signifies assent. It may be translated "so (be it)" or simply "yes".
3 m > before a vowel..
4 This greeting is idiomatic, using the accusative of the person greeted with an indeclinable and the imperative of the verb as; cf. the "accusative of specification of state", Lesson 2.

gaccha tvaṃ Ānanda

You must go, Ānanda

idaṃ hara

Take this

etu bhagavā

Let the fortunate one come

ayaṃ samaṇo Gotamo5 āgacchati

This is the philosopher Gotama coming

nibbeṭhehi sace pahosi

Rebut (it) if you can

desetu sugato dhammaṃ

Let the well-gone teach the doctrine

pivatha khādathā ti

Drink! Eat!

abhikkama mahārāja

Go forward, Great King

thūpaṃ karonti

They make a pagoda

etha tumhe

You go!

5 Name of the clan (gotta) to which the Buddha belonged. Used like a surname

Translate into Pali

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I do not say this world doesn't exist

na n'atthi ayaṃ loko ti vadāmi

That man must come

etu so puriso

Bring that!

idaṃ āhara

Lesson 7

Past Participle

The past participle is usually formed from the root with the suffix ta or ita:

stem
past participle
meaning
(p)pa-(k)kampakkantagone away, left
karkatadone
kilamkilantatired
kup (to be angry)kupitaangered
gamgatagone
adhi-gam the prefix adhi means “over”adhigataunderstood
ā-gamāgatacome
saṃ-anu-ā-gamsamannāgataendowed, acquired
ni-(g)gah (to seize, to grasp)niggahītarefuted
chaḍḍchaḍḍitathrown away, abandoned
(p)pa-(ñ)ñappaññattadeclared, prepared
()ṭhāṭhitastood, stayed
saṃ-tussantuṭṭhacontented, satisfied
disdesitataught
(d)disdiṭṭhaseen
pucchpuṭṭhaasked
bandhbaddhabound
bhāsbhāsitaspoken
bhūbhūtabeen
ni(r)-mā (to measure)nimmitacreated
vi-muc (to become free)vimuttafreed
ni-rudh (to obstruct)niruddhastopped, ceased, ended
vacvuttasaid
(p)pa-(v)vajpabbajitagone forth
samsantacalmed
(s)su (to hear)sutaheard

 The past participle is normally passive (kammapada) in meaning, but past participles of intransitive verbs (and even of some transitive verbs used intransitively), especially of those meaning "go", "move", "go forth", are sometimes constructed as active.

 The past participle may be equivalent to a (normally passive) finite verb in the past tense.

 It then appears in the nominative case and agrees in number and gender with the agent (if active) or the patient. (if passive).

 Usually it indicates the "present-perfect", as in conversation, e.g.:

maya ... upasaṃkantā, "we have approached …", "we have come …"
(announcing their arrival to see someone).

Instead of standing alone as equivalent to a finite verb the past participle may be accompanied (usually followed) by the present tense of verbs meaning "to be", stressing the "present-perfect" sense.

Some past participles are used as nouns (e.g. bhāsitaṃ may mean "what was spoken", "speech", "saying"), and all of them may be used as "adjectives" (e.g. kupita = "angry") qualifying and agreeing with nouns in gender, case, and number. Some have acquired special meanings as nouns. They are inflected like nouns in a, in the three genders.

Neuter Nouns in -a

 Neuter nouns in a have their nominative singular in aṃ (as well as their accusative) and their nominative and accusative plural in āni. The rest of their declension is the same as for masculines in a. Thus from the stem yāna, "carriage", we have:

 singularplural
nominative and accusative yānaṃ
yānāni

 

Instrumental Case

 The third or instrumental (tatiyā, karaṇa) case is used to express the instrument by means of which an action is done. Masculine and neuter nouns in a have the singular instrumental inflection ena and the plural ehi.

The first personal pronoun has in the singular the forms mayā and me,"by me", the latter form being enclitic (it need not follow the word with which it is most closely connected, but cannot stand at the beginning of a sentence).

The instrumental plural is amhehi. e.g.: kāyena phusati, "he touches with (his) body." Likewise "he acquiesced by his silence" is … tuṇhībhāvena; bringing water "in a bowl" is pattena.

The instrumental embraces a wide range of idioms, including "covered with dust", "… with clothes (dressing)", "pleased with" or "by a saying" or "by seeing", and a series of special uses which will be considered in the next Lesson.

 

Passive Sentences

 When the action of a sentence is expressed by a passive (kammapada) verb, the agent is expressed by the instrumental case.

A common construction is the past participle used as an impersonal (bhāva) passive verb and inflected in the nominative singular neuter as sentence-verb:

evaṃ me sutaṃ - "thus it was heard by me" or "thus I have heard" ("present-perfect").

If there is a patient, and the action is expressed by a past participle, the patient will be in the nominative case and the participle will agree with it in gender, case, and number, as if it were an adjective:

mayā ime sattā nimmitā - "by me these beings were (/have been) created", "I (have) created these beings."

[N.B. - The agent (kattar) may be expressed either by the nominative or by the instrumental, and the patient (kamma) either by the accusative or by the nominative, according to the active or passive construction of the sentence.]

The stems in consonants form instrumentals with the inflection a:

steminstrumental
bhagavant
bhagavatā
brahman brahmunā
rājan raññā (j+n assimilated to ññ )

The other pronouns form instrumentals as follows:

nominativeinstrumental singularinstrumental plural
tvaṃ tayā, te
tumhehi
so and taṃ tena
tehi
tāya tāhi
ayaṃ iminā (M. and N.)
imehi (M. and N.)
imāya (F.)
imāhi (F.)

 

Neuter nouns in a, nominative singular:

noun
meaning
āsanaṃseat
kammaṃwork
kicchaṃdifficulty
gehaṃhouse, building
gottaṃclan
cīvaraṃrobe
dānaṃgift, donation, alms
dukkhaṃunhappiness, misery, suffering
dvāraṃdoor, gate
dhanaṃmoney, wealth
puññaṃmerit, good, goodness, meritorious action
maraṇaṃdeath
yojanaṃleague (actually about 4.5 miles)
sahassaṃthousand
sīlaṃvirtue, good conduct
sukhaṃhappiness

 

Indeclinable:

indeclinable
meaning
āmayes

EXERCISE 7

The answers are given in Part 8

Translate into English

iminā mayaṃ nimmitā

mayaṃ brahmunā nimmitā

desito Ānanda mayā dhammo1

iminā tvaṃ purisa dhanena jivāhi

vimutto tathāgato

te ca me evaṃ puṭṭhā āmā ti vadanti

idam2 āsanaṃ paññattaṃ

ete manussā gehaṃ pavisanti

niggahīto 'si3

kilanto 'smi

dānaṃ detha

desito placed at the beginning for emphasis. As a rule departures from the usual word order in prose indicates emphasis, strong emotion.
2 may change to m when a vowel follows.
3 asi with elision of the first vowel.

Translate into Pali

They experience happiness

The doctrine has been declared by me

The wanderer is (hoti) contented

Death (is) misery

I have heard this

I did the work

He gives a donation

The body (is) tired