Part 7 - Exercise 6 Answers and Lesson #7
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1 Elision of final a before another vowel.
2 evaṃ with a vocative as here signifies assent. It may be translated "so (be it)" or simply "yes".
3 m > ṃ before a vowel..
4 This greeting is idiomatic, using the accusative of the person greeted with an indeclinable and the imperative of the verb as; cf. the "accusative of specification of state", Lesson 2.
5 Name of the clan (gotta) to which the Buddha belonged. Used like a surname
The past participle is usually formed from the root with the suffix ta or ita:
|(p)pa-(k)kam||pakkanta||gone away, left|
|kup (to be angry)||kupita||angered|
|adhi-gam the prefix adhi means “over”||adhigata||understood|
|ni-(g)gah (to seize, to grasp)||niggahīta||refuted|
|chaḍḍ||chaḍḍita||thrown away, abandoned|
|ni(r)-mā (to measure)||nimmita||created|
|vi-muc (to become free)||vimutta||freed|
|ni-rudh (to obstruct)||niruddha||stopped, ceased, ended|
|(s)su (to hear)||suta||heard|
The past participle is normally passive (kammapada) in meaning, but past participles of intransitive verbs (and even of some transitive verbs used intransitively), especially of those meaning "go", "move", "go forth", are sometimes constructed as active.
The past participle may be equivalent to a (normally passive) finite verb in the past tense.
It then appears in the nominative case and agrees in number and gender with the agent (if active) or the patient. (if passive).
Usually it indicates the "present-perfect", as in conversation, e.g.:
mayaṃ ... upasaṃkantā, "we have approached …", "we have come …"
(announcing their arrival to see someone).
Instead of standing alone as equivalent to a finite verb the past participle may be accompanied (usually followed) by the present tense of verbs meaning "to be", stressing the "present-perfect" sense.
Some past participles are used as nouns (e.g. bhāsitaṃ may mean "what was spoken", "speech", "saying"), and all of them may be used as "adjectives" (e.g. kupita = "angry") qualifying and agreeing with nouns in gender, case, and number. Some have acquired special meanings as nouns. They are inflected like nouns in a, in the three genders.
Neuter Nouns in -a
Neuter nouns in a have their nominative singular in aṃ (as well as their accusative) and their nominative and accusative plural in āni. The rest of their declension is the same as for masculines in a. Thus from the stem yāna, "carriage", we have:
|nominative and accusative||yānaṃ ||yānāni|
The third or instrumental (tatiyā, karaṇa) case is used to express the instrument by means of which an action is done. Masculine and neuter nouns in a have the singular instrumental inflection ena and the plural ehi.
The first personal pronoun has in the singular the forms mayā and me,"by me", the latter form being enclitic (it need not follow the word with which it is most closely connected, but cannot stand at the beginning of a sentence).
The instrumental plural is amhehi. e.g.: kāyena phusati, "he touches with (his) body." Likewise "he acquiesced by his silence" is … tuṇhībhāvena; bringing water "in a bowl" is pattena.
The instrumental embraces a wide range of idioms, including "covered with dust", "… with clothes (dressing)", "pleased with" or "by a saying" or "by seeing", and a series of special uses which will be considered in the next Lesson.
When the action of a sentence is expressed by a passive (kammapada) verb, the agent is expressed by the instrumental case.
A common construction is the past participle used as an impersonal (bhāva) passive verb and inflected in the nominative singular neuter as sentence-verb:
evaṃ me sutaṃ - "thus it was heard by me" or "thus I have heard" ("present-perfect").
If there is a patient, and the action is expressed by a past participle, the patient will be in the nominative case and the participle will agree with it in gender, case, and number, as if it were an adjective:
mayā ime sattā nimmitā - "by me these beings were (/have been) created", "I (have) created these beings."
[N.B. - The agent (kattar) may be expressed either by the nominative or by the instrumental, and the patient (kamma) either by the accusative or by the nominative, according to the active or passive construction of the sentence.]
The stems in consonants form instrumentals with the inflection a:
|rājan||raññā (j+n assimilated to ññ )|
The other pronouns form instrumentals as follows:
|nominative||instrumental singular||instrumental plural|
|tvaṃ||tayā, te ||tumhehi|
|so and taṃ||tena ||tehi|
|ayaṃ||iminā (M. and N.) ||imehi (M. and N.)|
|imāya (F.) ||imāhi (F.)|
Neuter nouns in a, nominative singular:
|dānaṃ||gift, donation, alms|
|dukkhaṃ||unhappiness, misery, suffering|
|puññaṃ||merit, good, goodness, meritorious action|
|yojanaṃ||league (actually about 4.5 miles)|
|sīlaṃ||virtue, good conduct|
iminā mayaṃ nimmitā
mayaṃ brahmunā nimmitā
desito Ānanda mayā dhammo1
iminā tvaṃ purisa dhanena jivāhi
te ca me evaṃ puṭṭhā āmā ti vadanti
idam2 āsanaṃ paññattaṃ
ete manussā gehaṃ pavisanti
1 desito placed at the beginning for emphasis. As a rule departures from the usual word order in prose indicates emphasis, strong emotion.
2 ṃ may change to m when a vowel follows.
3 asi with elision of the first vowel.
Translate into Pali
They experience happiness
The doctrine has been declared by me
The wanderer is (hoti) contented
Death (is) misery
I have heard this
I did the work
He gives a donation
The body (is) tired