Part 10 - Lesson #9
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"it is given up"
|kar (to do)
|it is done (the i may be long or short; another spelling is kayirati)
|(ñ)ñā (to know) - (with the prefix (p)pa)
|it is understood
|dā (to give)
|it is given
|(d)dis (to see)
|he is seen
|vac (to say)
|it is said, it is called (cf. the past participle: vutta)
|han (to kill)
|he is killed
Passive verbs are not very common in Pali, which has a strong preference for the active except in certain favoured expressions with past participles.
An aorist passive is sometimes formed by adding the aorist inflections to the passive stem: haññiṃsu, "they were killed."
A present participle passive is formed by adding the suffix māna to the passive stem and inflecting as a participle: kayiramāna, "being done."
Feminine Nouns in -ā
Feminine nouns in ā have the following inflections in the first three cases:
|(kathā or) kathāyo
|female lay disciple
|deity, divine being, spirit
Verb of the first conjugation
|apa-(k)ham (the prefix apa means "off ", "away")
|he goes off, he withdraws
|sir! (polite address to a Buddhist monk)
|or, either (enclitic, used like ca in Vocabulary section of Part 4)
|it is true that, is it true that? (whether this is interrogative can appear only from the context - and no doubt from the intonation in speaking)
ayaṃ kho sā brāhmaṇa paññā
esā taṇhā pahīyati
saccaṃ Nigrodha bhāsitā te esā vācā (interrogative)
saccaṃ bhante bhāsitā me esā vācā (affirmative reply to the preceding sentence)
idaṃ vuccati cittan ti vā viññāṇan ti vā
tā devatā maṃ etad avocuṃ
atthi kho bho Maṇikā1 nāma vijjā
saññā ca vedanā ca niruddhā honti2
Sujātā nāma bhante upāsikā kālakatā3
evaṃ pi kho Sunakkhatto mayā vuccamāno apakkami
samaṇo Gotamo imaṃ parisaṃ āgacchati
1A magic science for thought-reading.
2As here, hū is sometimes used as an "auxiliary" verb with a past particle: "are stopped", "have ceased." This construction is described as "'periphrastic", and is equivalent to a single passive verb. It is much more commonly used than the latter.
3Cf. kālam akāsi in Exercise 4 (opens in new tab); here kāla is compounded with the participle, the whole functioning grammatically as a past participle.
Translate into Pali, using the present passive in the present time sentences
These phenomena are abandoned
Goats are killed
The priest is seen
Ignorance is given up
He is called an ascetic
This is called misery
Taking a garland they went to the hall