Part 10 - Lesson #9

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Lesson 9

Passive Conjugation

and

 
singular
plural
3rd person pahiyati
"it is given up"
pahiyanti
2nd personpahiyasipahiyatha
1st personpahiyamipahiyama


stem
verb
meaning
kar (to do)kariyatiit is done (the i may be long or short; another spelling is kayirati)
(ñ)ñā (to know) - (with the prefix (p)pa)paññāyatiit is understood
(to give)dīyatiit is given
(d)dis (to see)dissatihe is seen
vac (to say)vuccatiit is said, it is called (cf. the past participle: vutta)
han (to kill)haññatihe is killed

Passive verbs are not very common in Pali, which has a strong preference for the active except in certain favoured expressions with past participles.

An aorist passive is sometimes formed by adding the aorist inflections to the passive stem: haññiṃsu, "they were killed."

A present participle passive is formed by adding the suffix māna to the passive stem and inflecting as a participle: kayiramāna, "being done."

 

Feminine Nouns in -ā

Feminine nouns in ā have the following inflections in the first three cases:

 singularplural
nominative kathā
"talk", "story"
(kathā or) kathāyo
accusative kathaṃ
instrumental kathāyakathāhi


noun
meaning
avijjāignorance
upāsikāfemale lay disciple
taṇhādesire, "thirst"
devatādeity, divine being, spirit
paññāunderstanding, wisdom
parisāassembly
mālāgarland
vācāspeech
vijjāscience, knowledge
vedanāsensation
saññāperception
sālāhall

Vocabulary

 Verb of the first conjugation

stem
verb
meaning
apa-(k)ham (the prefix apa means "off ", "away")apakkamatihe goes off, he withdraws

Noun

noun
meaning
ajogoat

 Indeclinables

indeclinable
meaning
bhantesir! (polite address to a Buddhist monk)
or, either (enclitic, used like ca in Vocabulary section of Part 4)
saccaṃit is true that, is it true that? (whether this is interrogative can appear only from the context - and no doubt from the intonation in speaking)

EXERCISE 9

The answers are given in Part 11

Translate into English

kāyā hāyanti

ayaṃ kho sā brāhmaṇa paññā

esā taṇhā pahīyati

bhojanaṃ dīyati      

saccaṃ Nigrodha bhāsitā te esā vācā (interrogative)

saccaṃ bhante bhāsitā me esā vācā (affirmative reply to the preceding sentence)

idaṃ vuccati cittan ti vā viññāṇan ti vā

tā devatā maṃ etad avocuṃ

atthi kho bho Maṇikā1 nāma vijjā

saññā ca vedanā ca niruddhā honti2

Sujātā nāma bhante upāsikā kālakatā3

evaṃ pi kho Sunakkhatto mayā  vuccamāno apakkami

samaṇo Gotamo imaṃ parisaṃ āgacchati

1A magic science for thought-reading.

2As here, is sometimes used as an "auxiliary" verb with a past particle: "are stopped", "have ceased." This construction is described as "'periphrastic", and is equivalent to a single passive verb. It is much more commonly used than the latter.

3Cf. kālam akāsi in Exercise 4 (opens in new tab); here kāla is compounded with the participle, the whole functioning grammatically as a past participle.

Translate into Pali, using the present passive in the present time sentences

These phenomena are abandoned

Goats are killed

The priest is seen

Ignorance is given up

He is called an ascetic

This is called misery

Taking a garland they went to the hall