Part 6 - Exercise 5 Answers and Lesson #6
Play the audio and follow along.
Use the 'play time' buttons within the text to navigate the audio.
|3rd person||avoca - "he said"||avocuṃ|
|2nd person||avoca (also avaca)||avocuttha (also avacuttha)|
|1st person||avocaṃ||avocumha (or-umhā)
(He comes and goes)
(Thus it is, Brahmin)
1 Rhetorical and emotive inversion of agent and verb, for emphasis. In their context these words follow the utterance of an important statement.
2 ṃ may change to m when a vowel follows in close junction.
The imperative (pañcamī) tense is formed from the present stem with some special inflections:
The second person singular has usually no inflection but sometimes the inflection hi is added.
The 3rd person imperative used with the title or name of the person addressed, or the polite pronoun, expresses a polite invitation.
The following verbs, and all verbs of the seventh conjugation, regularly have the hi inflection for 2nd person plural:
|jīv||jīvāhi||live! - make your living!|
|i||ehi||go! - you must go.|
|vad||vadehi||say! - speak! (the stem vowel is irregularly
changed to e)
The third person singular imperative of hū is hotu.
atthu - it may be, may it be, it shall be.
The imperative expresses commands and prohibitions, but also invitations and wishes. In the second person the sense is usually that of a command, whereas the 3rd person imperative used in a similar situation with the title or name of the person addressed, or the polite pronoun, expresses a polite invitation.
The imperative verb often stands at the beginning of a sentence.
The imperative of (ṭ)ṭhā is used (besides the sense "wait", "remain": ettha tiṭṭha, "wait here") in the meaning: "let it be", "never mind", "let him not", "don't trouble". eg. tiṭṭhatha tumhe, "don't you bother."
The stem bhavant - (of the present participle of bhū) is used as a pronoun of polite or respectful reference or address (tvaṃ being restricted to familiar address) but with a verb of the 3rd person
"you", "sir", "his honour"
The indeclinable ti means "end quote" and stands at the end of any passage in direct speech. It is used also to mark something thought.
Anything quoted, whether a line of verse or a single word (e.g. in giving a definition or in mentioning a word or concept kāyo ti = "'body'", kusalan ti = "the word 'good'", "the good", "the concept of the good"), is marked in the same way.
Indirect speech is exceedingly rare in Pali, so that instead of such English constructions as "he said (or thought) that so and so" or "when he asked so and so" we find direct speech with ti: " so and so ti he said."
Any short vowel immediately preceding ti is lengthened. The pure nasal ṃ is changed to the dental nasal n.
evaṃ devā ti - "(it is) so, O king" (end quote)
n' eso n' atthī ti vadāmi - "I don't say 'This doesn't exist'."
(Here the first na goes with vadāmi and the second with atthi; the quotation starts after the first na, with "eso…")
This indeclinable sometimes appears in a fuller form: iti, which is emphatic and may generally be translated "this", "that", "thus". It may refer to a statement (or a philosophical view or conception) from a distance instead of marking the end of the actual words. The two forms may be used together for emphasis.
Verbs of the tan or sixth conjugation (tanādi gaṇa) form present stems with the suffix o. The personal endings are the same as for the first conjugation. From the root kar, "to do", "to make", "to work", the present tense is:
The imperative tense is karotu (3rd sing.), karontu (3rd plur.), karohi (2nd sing.), etc. (rest as present).
Similarly conjugated are:
|(p)pa-ap(p)||pappoti||he attains, he arrives (a rare,
"poetic" verb; cf. in ordinary speech phusati and upasaṃkamati)
|tan||tanoti||it expands, it stretches|
|sak(k)||sakkoti||he can, he is able to|
kar is the only verb of this conjugation which is frequently used. It is found in many idioms, such as take in the hand, assume an appearance or expression, perform a feat, make a reply; also to do an action which is specified by a patient-noun, as sajjhāyaṃ karoti, "he does studying", i.e. "he studies".
Verb of the first conjugation:
|anu-sās (to rule)|
(the prefix anu means "after", "following")
|anusāsati||he advises, he instructs (used especially of ministers of a king, also figuratively of a teacher)|
|abhi-(k)kam||abhikkamati||he goes forward, he advances|
|ā-i||eti||he comes (the vowels combine: only the context can decide whether the meaning is "goes" or "comes")|
|khād||khādati||he eats, he bites, he chews|
|(p)pa-hū||pahoti||he can (more emphatic than sakkoti)|
Masculine nouns in a:
|pariyāyo||course (lit, and fig., including discourse and manner of doing something)|
|vaṇṇo||colour, beauty, praise, class|
|sajjhāyo||learning, studying, study|
|bhavaṃ||good fortune! , best wishes!|
ehi tvaṃ purisa. yena Jotipālo māṇavo ten' 1 upasaṃkama. Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ evaṃ vadehi … evaṃ 2 devā ti … so puriso Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ etad avoca: bhavam 3 atthu bhavantaṃ Jotipālaṃ 4 māṇavaṃ. rājā Disampati bhavantaṃ Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ āmanteti … Jotipālo māṇavo yena rājā Disampati ten' upasaṃkami. Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ rājā Disampati etad avoca. anusāsatu bhavaṃ Jotipālo māṇavo … te atthe anusāsati.
1 Elision of final a before another vowel.
2 evaṃ with a vocative as here signifies assent. It may be translated "so (be it)" or simply "yes".
3 m > ṃ before a vowel..
4 This greeting is idiomatic, using the accusative of the person greeted with an indeclinable and the imperative of the verb as; cf. the "accusative of specification of state", Lesson 2.
gaccha tvaṃ Ānanda
ayaṃ samaṇo Gotamo 5 āgacchati
nibbeṭhehi sace pahosi
desetu sugato dhammaṃ
pivatha khādathā ti
5 Name of the clan (gotta) to which the Buddha belonged. Used like a surname
Translate into Pali
Let the fortunate one sit down
That man must come
Let the priest not trouble
He makes an opportunity
The king said this: "We must go"
I do not say this world doesn't exist
Give that up!
Let not the honourable Govinda go forth
Ask the fortunate one (about) this subject-matter
This conch makes a noise