Part 6 - Exercise 5 Answers and Lesson #6

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Exercise 5 - Answers

Translate into English

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Reṇu rājaputto rājanaṃ Disampatiṃ etad avoca. mā kho tvaṃ deva paridevesi. atthi deva Jotipālo nāma māṇavo putto ti. atha kho rājā Disampati purisaṃ āmantesi.

Prince Renu said this to King Disampati: 'O King, don't grieve. There is, O King, the young priest, (his) son named Jotipāla'. Then King Disampati addressed a man.

See this table (from pg.32):
 
singular
plural
3rd person avoca - "he said"avocuṃ
2nd person avoca (also avaca)avocuttha (also avacuttha)
1st person avocaṃavocumha (or-umhā)

ahaṃ ime dhamme desesiṃ

I have taught these doctrines

rājā khattiyo taṃ purisaṃ etad avoca

The noble king said this to that man

mā samaṇaṃ upasaṃkami

Don't approach the philosopher

ahaṃ purohito brāhmaṇo ahosiṃ

I was the priest who was prime minister

ahaṃ asmi brahmā issaro

I am God the Lord

idaṃ avoca bhagavā1

This the fortunate one said

te rajāputtaṃ avocuṃ

They said to the prince

mā saddam akattha

Don't make a noise

so nirodhaṃ phusati

He attains cessation

samaṇā amha

We are philosophers

na taṃ deva vañcemi

O King, I am not deceiving you

eso mahārāja bhagavā

Great King, this is the fortunate one

mayaṃ bhagavantaṃ upasaṃkamimhā

We have approached the fortunate one

atthi kāyo

There is the body

upeti pi apeti pi

It goes to (him) and it goes away
(He comes and goes)

evam2 etaṃ brāhmaṇa

That is so, priest
(Thus it is, Brahmin)

1 Rhetorical and emotive inversion of agent and verb, for emphasis. In their context these words follow the utterance of an important statement.

2 may change to m when a vowel follows in close junction.

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This king is a human being, I too am a human being

ayaṃ rājā manusso, aham pi manusso

Then (add kho) Mahāgovinda the priest towards those nobles approached that way

atha kho Mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo yena te khattiyā tena upasaṃkami

Lesson 6

Imperative Tense

 The imperative (pañcamī) tense is formed from the present stem with some special inflections:

 
singular
plural
3rd person bhavatubhavantu
2nd person bhavabhavatha
1st person bhavāmibhavāma

The second person singular has usually no inflection but sometimes the inflection hi is added.

The 3rd person imperative used with the title or name of the person addressed, or the polite pronoun, expresses a polite invitation.

The following verbs, and all verbs of the seventh conjugation, regularly have the hi inflection for 2nd person plural:

stem
inflection
meaning
jīvjīvāhilive! - make your living!
iehigo! - you must go.
vadvadehisay! - speak! (the stem vowel is irregularly
changed to e)
hohibe!

 The third person singular imperative of is hotu.

atthu - it may be, may it be, it shall be.

The imperative expresses commands and prohibitions, but also invitations and wishes. In the second person the sense is usually that of a command, whereas the 3rd person imperative used in a similar situation with the title or name of the person addressed, or the polite pronoun, expresses a polite invitation.

The imperative verb often stands at the beginning of a sentence.

The imperative of (ṭ)ṭhā is used (besides the sense "wait", "remain": ettha tiṭṭha, "wait here") in the meaning: "let it be", "never mind", "let him not", "don't trouble". eg. tiṭṭhatha tumhe, "don't you bother."

 

Respectful Address

The stem bhavant - (of the present participle of bhū) is used as a pronoun of polite or respectful reference or address (tvaṃ being restricted to familiar address) but with a verb of the 3rd person

 singular
nominative bhavaṃ
"you", "sir", "his honour"
accusative bhavantaṃ

Quotation

 The indeclinable ti means "end quote" and stands at the end of any passage in direct speech. It is used also to mark something thought.

 Anything quoted, whether a line of verse or a single word (e.g. in giving a definition or in mentioning a word or concept kāyo ti = "'body'", kusalan ti = "the word 'good'", "the good", "the concept of the good"), is marked in the same way.

 Indirect speech is exceedingly rare in Pali, so that instead of such English constructions as "he said (or thought) that so and so" or "when he asked so and so" we find direct speech with ti: " so and so ti he said."

Any short vowel immediately preceding ti is lengthened. The pure nasal is changed to the dental nasal n.

evaṃ devā ti - "(it is) so, O king" (end quote)

n' eso n' atthī ti vadāmi - "I don't say 'This doesn't exist'."
(Here the first na goes with vadāmi and the second with atthi; the quotation starts after the first na, with "eso…")

This indeclinable sometimes appears in a fuller form: iti, which is emphatic and may generally be translated "this", "that", "thus". It may refer to a statement (or a philosophical view or conception) from a distance instead of marking the end of the actual words. The two forms may be used together for emphasis.

 

Sixth Conjugation

 Verbs of the tan or sixth conjugation (tanādi gaṇa) form present stems with the suffix o. The personal endings are the same as for the first conjugation. From the root kar, "to do", "to make", "to work", the present tense is:

 singularplural
3rd person karoti
karonti
2nd person karosikarotha
1st person karomikaroma

The imperative tense is karotu (3rd sing.), karontu (3rd plur.), karohi (2nd sing.), etc. (rest as present).

Similarly conjugated are:

stem
verb
meaning
(p)pa-ap(p)pappotihe attains, he arrives (a rare,
"poetic" verb; cf. in ordinary speech phusati and upasaṃkamati)
vi-ā-karvyākarotihe explains
tantanotiit expands, it stretches
sak(k)sakkotihe can, he is able to

kar is the only verb of this conjugation which is frequently used. It is found in many idioms, such as take in the hand, assume an appearance or expression, perform a feat, make a reply; also to do an action which is specified by a patient-noun, as sajjhāyaṃ karoti, "he does studying", i.e. "he studies".

 

Vocabulary

Verb of the first conjugation:

stem
verb
meaning
anu-sās (to rule)
(the prefix anu means "after", "following")
anusāsatihe advises, he instructs (used especially of ministers of a king, also figuratively of a teacher)
abhi-(k)kamabhikkamatihe goes forward, he advances
ā-ietihe comes (the vowels combine: only the context can decide whether the meaning is "goes" or "comes")
khādkhādatihe eats, he bites, he chews
pivatihe drinks
(p)pa-hūpahotihe can (more emphatic than sakkoti)

Masculine nouns in a:

noun
meaning
okāsoopportunity
thūpomonument, pagoda
pariyāyocourse (lit, and fig., including discourse and manner of doing something)
vaṇṇocolour, beauty, praise, class
saṅkhoconch (trumpet)
sajjhāyolearning, studying, study

 Indeclinables:

indeclinable
meaning
bhavaṃgood fortune! , best wishes!

EXERCISE 6

The answers are given in Part 7

Translate into English

ehi tvaṃ purisa. yena Jotipālo māṇavo ten' 1 upasaṃkama. Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ evaṃ vadehi … evaṃ 2 devā ti … so puriso Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ etad avoca: bhavam 3 atthu bhavantaṃ Jotipālaṃ 4 māṇavaṃ. rājā Disampati bhavantaṃ Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ āmanteti … Jotipālo māṇavo yena rājā Disampati ten' upasaṃkami. Jotipālaṃ māṇavaṃ rājā Disampati etad avoca. anusāsatu bhavaṃ Jotipālo māṇavo … te atthe anusāsati.

1 Elision of final a before another vowel.
2 evaṃ with a vocative as here signifies assent. It may be translated "so (be it)" or simply "yes".
3 m > before a vowel..
4 This greeting is idiomatic, using the accusative of the person greeted with an indeclinable and the imperative of the verb as; cf. the "accusative of specification of state", Lesson 2.

gaccha tvaṃ Ānanda

idaṃ hara

etu bhagavā

ayaṃ samaṇo Gotamo 5 āgacchati

nibbeṭhehi sace pahosi

desetu sugato dhammaṃ

pivatha khādathā ti

abhikkama mahārāja

thūpaṃ karonti

etha tumhe

5 Name of the clan (gotta) to which the Buddha belonged. Used like a surname

Translate into Pali

Let the fortunate one sit down

Bring that!

That man must come

Let the priest not trouble

He makes an opportunity

The king said this: "We must go"

I do not say this world doesn't exist

Give that up!

Let not the honourable Govinda go forth

Study! (plur.)

Ask the fortunate one (about) this subject-matter

This conch makes a noise